Magna Carta, also called Magna Carta Libertatum or “The Great Charter of the Liberties of England”, is an English charter, originally issued n Latin in the year 1215, translated into vernacular-French as early as 1219 and reissued later in the 13th century in modified versions. The later versions excluded the most direct challenges to the monarch’s authority that had been present in the 1215 charter. The charter first passed into law in 1225. The 1297 version, with the long title (originally in Latin) “The Great Charter of the Liberties of England, and of the Liberties of the Forest,” still remains on the statute books of England and Wales.
The 1215 charter required King John of England to proclaim certain liberties and accept that his will was not arbitrary, for example by explicitly accepting that no “freeman” (in the sense of non-serf) could be punished except through the law of the land, a right which is still in existence today.
Magna Carta was the first document forced onto an English King by a group of his subjects, the feudal barons, in an attempt to limit his powers by law and protect their privileges. It was preceded and directly influenced by the Charter of Liberties in 1100, in which King Henry I had specified particular areas wherein his powers would be limited. Despite its recognized importance, by the second half of the 19th century nearly all of its clauses had been repealed in their original form. Three clauses currently remain part of the law of England and Wales, however, and it is generally considered part of the uncodified constitution. Lord Denning described it as “the greatest constitutional document of all times – the foundation of the freedom of the individual against the arbitrary authority of the despot”. In a 2005 speech, Lord Woolf described it as “first of a series of instruments that now are recognized as having a special constitutional status”, the others being the Habeas Corpus Act (1679), the Petition of Right (1628), the Bill of Rights (1689) and the Act of Settlement (1701).
The charter was an important part of the extensive historical process that led to the rule of constitutional law in the English speaking world. Magna Carta was important in the colonization of American colonies as England’s legal system was used as a model for many of the colonies as they were developing their own legal systems. It was Magna Carta, over other early concessions by the monarch, which survived to become a “sacred text”. In practice, Magna Carta in the medieval period did not generally limit the power of kings, but by the time of the English Civil War it had become an important symbol for those who wished to show that the King was bound by the law. It influenced the early settlers in New England and inspired later constitutional documents, including the United States Constitution.
Popular perception is that King John and the barons signed Magna Carta. There were no signatures on the original document, however, only a single seal placed by the king. The words of the charter – Data per manum nostram – signify that the document was personally given by the king’s hand. By placing his seal on the document, the King and the barons followed common law that a seal was sufficient to authenticate a deed, though it had to be done in front of witnesses. John’s seal was the only one, and he did not sign it. The barons neither signed nor attached their seals to it. However, the names of the Barons, Bishops and Abbots who were party to Magna Carta are known from other sources.
Lines of Descent from Magna Carta Sureties (Barons):
LINE 1: Saher De Quincy Magna Carta Surety (1155 – 1219), 24th g-grandfather – Roger de Quincy 2nd Earl of Winchester (1195 – 1264) – Elizabeth (or Isabel) de Quincy (1220 – 1282) – Elizabeth Comyn (1248 – 1328) – Robert de Umfraville 8th Earl of Angus (1277 – 1325) – Elizabeth de Umfraville (1320 – 1381) – Eleanor de Boroughdon ( – 1380) – Joan Talboys (1360 – 1398) – Hawise Luttrell Baroness (1393 – 1421) – Sir Godfrey Hilton Baron Luttrell (1419 – 1472) – Elizabeth Hilton (1455 – 1522) – Anne Thimbleby (1487 – 1537) – Eleanor Booth (1510 – 1547) – William Hamby (1543 – 1612) – Robert Hamby (1573 – 1635) – Catherine Hamby (1615 – 1650) – Anne Hutchinson (1643 – 1716) – Ann Dyer (1672 – 1731) – Joseph Clarke (1694 – 1737) – Benjamin Clarke (1721 – 1790) – John Clarke (1780 – 1865) – Oratio Dyer Clarke (1811 – 1899) – Harriet Allen Clarke (1839 – 1898) – Clarence Clark Hamlin (1868 – 1940) – Elizabeth Gunnell Hamlin (1901 – 1982) – Tor Martin Hylbom (1939 – 2009) – Tor Martin (Majerus) Hylbom
LINE 2: Gilbert De Clare 4th Earl of Hertford, 5th Earl of Gloucester, Magna Carta Surety (1180 – 1230) – 25th g-grandfather – Richard de Clare 5th Earl of Hertford, 6th Earl of Gloucester (1222 – 1262) – Gilbert De Clare 6th Earl of Hertford, 7th Earl of Gloucester (1243 – 1295) – Alianor (Eleanor) De Clare (1292 – 1337) – Isabel Despenser (1312 – 1356) – Mary (or Isabel) FitzAlan ( – 1396) – Ankaret LeStrange 7th Baroness Strange of Blackmere (1361 – 1413) – Mary Talbot (1383 – 1433) – Sir Thomas Greene (1400 – 1461) – Elizabeth Greene (1421 – 1460) – Sir Edward Raleigh (1441 – 1509) – Sir Edward Raleigh (1470 – 1508) – Bridget Raleigh (1506 – 1584) – Elizabeth Cope (1529 – 1584) – Bridget Elizabeth Dryden (1563 – 1644) – Anne Marbury (1591 – 1643) – Edward (Capt.) Hutchinson (1613 – 1675) – Anne Hutchinson (1643 – 1716) – and continuing as in LINE 1 through – Tor Martin (Majerus) Hylbom
LINE 3: Sir John De Lacy 2nd Earl of Lincoln, Magna Carta Surety (1192 – 1240), 25th g-grandfather – Maud De Lacy (1223 – 1289) – Gilbert De Clare 6th Earl of Hertford, 7th Earl of Gloucester (1243 – 1295) – and continuing as in LINE 2 through – Tor Martin (Majerus) Hylbom
LINE 4: William De Huntingfield Magna Carta Surety ( -1221), 25th g-grandfather – Roger De Huntingfield (1195 – 1257) – William De Huntingfield (1232 – 1290) – Roger De Huntingfield (1250 – 1302) – Joan De Huntingfield (1279 – 1314) – Sir Ralph Lord Basset (1300 – 1341) – Alianore Basset (1330 – 1388) – Sir John Mendlesham Knyvett (1352 – 1418) – Sir John Knyvett 3rd Lord Chancellor (1383 – 1445) – Margaret Knyvet (1412 – 1458) – Richard Chamberlain (1438 – 1497) – Anne Chamberlayne (1472 – 1540) – Bridget Raleigh (1506 – 1584) – and continuing as in LINE 2 through – Tor Martin (Majerus) Hylbom
 Saer de Quincy, 1st Earl of Winchester was one of the leaders of the baronial rebellion against King John of England and a major figure in both Scotland and England in the decades around the turn of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. Saer de Quincy’s immediate background was in the Scottish kingdom: his father, Robert de Quincy, was a knight in the service of king William the Lion, and his mother Orabilis was the heiress of the lordship of Leuchars in Fife. His rise to prominence in England came through his marriage to Margaret, the younger sister of Robert de Beaumont, 4th Earl of Leicester. It is probably no coincidence that her other brother was the de Quincys’ powerful Fife neighbor, Roger de Beaumont, Bishop of St Andrews. In 1204, Earl Robert died, leaving Margaret as co-heiress of the vast earldom along with her elder sister. The estate was split in half, and after the final division was ratified in 1207, de Quincy was made Earl of Winchester. Following his marriage, de Quincy became a prominent military and diplomatic figure in England. There is no evidence of any close alliance with King John, however, and his rise to importance was probably due to his newly-acquired magnate status and the family connections that underpinned it. One man with whom he does seem to have developed a close personal relationship is his cousin, Robert Fitzwalter (d. 1235). They are first found together in 1203, as co-commanders of the garrison at the major fortress of Vaudreuil in Normandy. They were responsible for surrendering the castle without a fight to Philip II of France, fatally weakening the English position in northern France, but although popular opinion seems to have blamed them for the capitulation, a royal writ is extant stating that the castle was surrendered at King John’s command, and both Saer and Fitzwalter had to endure personal humiliation and heavy ransoms at the hands of the French. In Scotland, he was perhaps more successful. In 1211-12, the Earl of Winchester commanded an imposing retinue of a hundred knights and a hundred serjeants in William the Lion’s campaign against the Mac William rebels, a force which some historians have suggested may have been the mercenary force from Brabant lent to the campaign by John. In 1215, when the baronial rebellion broke out, Robert Fitzwalter became the military commander, and the Earl of Winchester joined him, acting as one of the chief negotiators with John..Both cousins were among the 25 guarantors of the Magna Carta. De Quincy fought against John in the troubles that followed the signing of the Charter, and, again with Fitzwalter, travelled to France to invite Prince Louis of France to take the English throne. He and Fitzwalter were subsequently among the most committed and prominent supporters of Louis’ candidature for the kingship, against both John and the infant Henry III. When military defeat cleared the way for Henry III to take the throne, de Quincy went on crusade, perhaps in fulfillment of an earlier vow, and in 1219 he left to join the Fifth Crusade, then besieging Damietta. While in the east, he fell sick and died. He was buried in Acre, the capital of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, rather than in Egypt, and his heart was brought back and interred at Garendon Abbey near Loughborough, a house endowed by his wife’s family. Family: The family of de Quincy had arrived in England after the Norman Conquest and took their name from Cuinchy in the Arrondissement of Béthune. The personal name “Saer” was used by them over several generations. Both names are variously spelled in primary sources and older modern works, the first name being sometimes rendered Saher or Seer, and the surname as Quency or Quenci. The first recorded Saer de Quincy (known to historians as “Saer I”) was lord of the manor of Long Buckby in Northamptonshire in the earlier twelfth century and second husband of Matilda of St. Liz, stepdaughter of King David I of Scotland by Maud of Northumbria. This marriage produced two sons, Saer II and Robert de Quincy. It was Robert, the younger son, who was the father of the Saer de Quincy who eventually became Earl of Winchester. By her first husband Robert Fitz Richard, Matilda was also the paternal grandmother of Earl Saer’s close ally, Robert Fitzwalter. Robert de Quincy seems to have inherited no English lands from his father and pursued a knightly career in Scotland, where he is recorded from around 1160 as a close companion of his cousin, King William the Lion. By 1170 he had married Orabilis, heiress of the Scottish lordship of Leuchars and, through her, he became lord of an extensive complex of estates north of the border which included lands in Fife, Strathearn and Lothian. Saer de Quincy, the son of Robert de Quincy and Orabilis of Leuchars, was raised largely in Scotland. His absence from English records for the first decades of his life has led some modern historians and genealogists to confuse him with his uncle, Saer II, who took part in the rebellion of Henry the Young King in 1173, when the future Earl of Winchester can have been no more than a toddler. Saer II’s line ended without direct heirs, and his nephew and namesake would eventually inherit his estate, uniting his primary Scottish holdings with the family’s Northamptonshire patrimony, and possibly some lands in France. By his wife Margaret de Beaumont, Saer de Quincy had three sons and three daughters: Lorette who married Sir William de Valognes, Chamberlain of Scotland; Arabella who married Sir Richard Harcourt; Robert (d. 1217), before 1206 he married Hawise of Chester, Countess of Lincoln, sister and co-heiress of Ranulf de Blundeville, Earl of Chester; Roger, who succeeded his father as earl of Winchester (though he did not take formal possession of the earldom until after his mother’s death); Robert de Quincy (second son of that name; d. 1257) who married Helen, daughter of the Welsh prince Llywelyn the Great; Hawise, who married Hugh de Vere, 4th Earl of Oxford.
 Roger de Quincy, 2nd Earl of Winchester , was a medieval nobleman who was prominent on both sides of the Anglo-Scottish border, as Earl of Winchester and Constable of Scotland. He was the second son of Saer de Quincy, 1st Earl of Winchester, and Margaret de Beaumont. He probably joined his father on the Fifth Crusade in 1219, where the elder de Quincy fell sick and died. His elder brother having died a few years earlier, Roger thus inherited his father’s titles and properties. However, he did not take possession of his father’s lands until February 1221, probably because he did not return to England from the crusade until then. He did not formally become earl until after the death of his mother in 1235. Roger married Helen of Galloway (born about 1208), eldest daughter and co-heiress of Alan, Lord of Galloway. Without legitimate sons to succeed him, Alan’s lands and dignities were divided between the husbands of his three daughters, so Roger acquired Alan’s position as Constable of Scotland, and one-third of the lordship of Galloway (although the actual title of Lord of Galloway went through Helen’s half-sister Devorguilla to her husband John I de Balliol). The Galwegians rebelled under Gille Ruadh, not wanting their land divided, but the rebellion was suppressed by Alexander II of Scotland. Roger ruled his portion of Galloway strictly, and the Galwegians revolted again in 1247, forcing Roger to take refuge in a castle. Faced with a siege and little chance of relief, Roger and a few men fought their way out and rode off to seek help from Alexander, who raised forces to again suppress the rebellion. In the following years Roger was one of the leaders of the baronial opposition to Henry III of England, although he fought for Henry against the Welsh in the 1250s and 1260s. Following Ellen’s death in 1245, Roger married Maud de Bohun, daughter of Humphrey de Bohun, 2nd Earl of Hereford, around 1250. Maud died only two years later, and Roger married his third wife, Eleanor de Ferrers, daughter of William de Ferrers, 5th Earl of Derby the same year. Roger had three daughters by his first wife, but no sons. His subsequent marriages produced no issue. After his death his estates were divided between the daughters, and the earldom of Winchester lapsed. The three daughters of Roger and Helen of Galloway were: Ellen, who married Alan la Zouche, Lord Zouche of Ashby; Elizabeth (also known as Isabel), who married Alexander Comyn, 2nd Earl of Buchan and Margaret (or Margery), who married William de Ferrers, 5th Earl of Derby (and was thus stepmother to her own stepmother).
 Elizabeth married Alexander Comyn, 2nd Earl of Buchan (died 1289), a Scoto-Norman magnate who was one of the most important figures in the 13th century Kingdom of Scotland. He was the son of William Comyn, jure uxoris Earl of Buchan, and Marjory, Countess of Buchan, the heiress of the last native Scottish Mormaer of Buchan, Fergus. During his long career, Alexander was Justiciar of Scotia (1258–89), Constable of Scotland (1275–89), Sheriff of Wigtown (1263–66), Sheriff of Dingwall (1264–66), Ballie of Inverie (in Knoydart) and finally, Guardian of Scotland (1286–89) during the first interregnum following the death of King Alexander III. In 1284 he joined with other Scottish noblemen who acknowledged Margaret of Norway as the heiress to King Alexander. He died sometime after 10 Jul 1289. Alexander had at least nine children with his wife, Elisabeth, daughter of Roger de Quincy, 2nd Earl of Winchester.
 Elizabeth married Gilbert de Umfraville, Earl of Angus (1245–1308) was the first of the Anglo-French de Umfraville line to rule the Earldom of Angus in his own right. His father was Gilbert de Umfraville (d. shortly before 13 Mar 1245), a Norman, and feudal Baron of Prudhoe in Northumberland, and his mother was Matilda, Countess of Angus. He succeeded his father in infancy. He also carried on the line of the earlier Gaelic earls through his mother. He succeeded her sometime after 1247 (when she was still living with her third husband Richard de Dover) as an infant, certainly no older than three. Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, paid £10,000 to act as Gilbert’s warden. Gilbert eventually grew into his inheritance, and although he was primarily an English magnate, there are still a few of his recorded grants. Gilbert was the nominal ruler of the province for more than half a century. As Earl of Angus he was summoned in 1276 for a campaign in Gwynedd against Llywelyn ap Gruffudd. In 1284 he attended the parliament with other Scottish noblemen who acknowledged Margaret of Norway as the heir to King Alexander. In 1296 he again joined Edward I in his conquest of Scotland. He also founded a chantry for two priests at Prudhoe castle to celebrate mass daily. He died in 1308, and was succeeded by his second son, Robert de Umfraville, Earl of Angus.
 Robert de Umfraville, 8th Earl of Angus (c. 1277-1325) was an Anglo-Norman baron in Northumberland and the eighth Earl of Angus. He was the second son of Gilbert de Umfraville and Elizabeth Comyn, daughter of Alexander Comyn, Earl of Buchan. He was more than thirty years old at his father’s death. He adhered to Edward II both against Scots and barons, and was regularly summoned to the English parliaments as Earl of Angus. He fought at the Battle of Bannockburn, and was taken prisoner after the battle by Robert Bruce, but soon released. Though formerly in opposition to the Despensers, he sat in judgment on Thomas of Lancaster. Bruce deprived him of his Scottish estates and title, and before 1329 the real earldom had been vested in the House of Stuart, from whom it passed in 1389 to a bastard branch of the Douglases. Robert married twice. His first wife was Lucy, sister and heiress of William of Kyme, whose considerable estates in Yorkshire and Lincolnshire, including the castle of Kyme, passed thus to the Umfravilles. By her he had a son Gilbert and a daughter Elizabeth. By his second wife, Eleanor, he had two sons, Robert and Thomas.
 Eleanor is an ancester of several notable individuals: President George Washington (11th g-grandmother [gg]), Charles, Prince of Wales (19th gg), PM Winston Churchill (17th gg), Princess Diana Spencer (17th gg) and Presidents Bush and Roosevelt.
 Gilbert de Clare, 4th Earl of Hertford, 5th Earl of Gloucester, was the son of Richard de Clare, 3rd Earl of Hertford, from whom he inherited the Clare estates. He also inherited from his mother, Amice Fitz William, the estates of Gloucester and the honor of St. Hilary, and from Rohese, an ancestor, the moiety of the Giffard estates. In June 1202, he was entrusted with the lands of Harfleur and Montrevillers. In 1215 Gilbert and his father were two of the barons made Magna Carta sureties and championed Louis “le Dauphin” of France in the First Barons’ War, fighting at Lincoln under the baronial banner. He was taken prisoner in 1217 by William Marshal, whose daughter Isabel he later married on 9 Oct 1217 (her 17th birthday). In 1223 he accompanied his brother-in-law, Earl Marshal, in an expedition into Wales. In 1225 he was present at the confirmation of the Magna Carta by Henry III. In 1228 he led an army against the Welsh, capturing Morgan Gam, who was released the next year. He then joined in an expedition to Brittany but died on his way back to Penrose in that duchy. His body was conveyed home by way of Plymouth and Cranborne to Tewkesbury. His widow Isabel later married Richard Plantagenet, Earl of Cornwall & King of the Romans. Hertford had six children by his wife Isabel, née Marshal: Agnes de Clare (b. 1218); Amice de Clare (1220-1287), who married the 6th Earl of Devon; Richard de Clare (1222-1262); Isabel de Clare (1226–1264), who married the 5th Lord of Annandale; William de Clare (1228-1258) and Gilbert de Clare (b. 1229).
 Richard de Clare, 5th Earl of Hertford, 6th Earl of Gloucester, was son of Gilbert de Clare, 4th Earl of Hertford and Isabel Marshal. On his father’s death, when he became Earl of Gloucester (October 1230), he was entrusted first to the guardianship of Hubert de Burgh. On Hubert’s fall, his guardianship was given to Peter des Roches (c. October 1232) and in 1235 to Gilbert, earl Marshall. Richard’s first marriage to Margaret or Megotta, as she was also called, ended with an annulment or with her death in November 1237. They were both approximately fourteen or fifteen. The marriage of Hubert de Burgh’s daughter Margaret to Richard of Clare, the young Earl of Gloucester, brought de Burgh into some trouble in 1236, for the earl was as yet a minor and in the king’s wardship, and the marriage had been celebrated without the royal license. Hubert, however, protested that the match was not of his making, and promised to pay the king some money, so the matter passed by for the time. Even before Margaret died, the Earl of Lincoln offered 5,000 marks to King Henry to secure Richard for his own daughter. This offer was accepted, and Richard was married secondly, on 2 Feb 1238 to Maud de Lacy, daughter of John de Lacy, 1st Earl of Lincoln. Military career: He joined in the Barons’ letter to the Pope in 1246 against the exactions of the Curia in England. He was among those in opposition to the King’s half-brothers, who in 1247 visited England, where they were very unpopular, but afterwards he was reconciled to them. In August 1253, the King crossed over to Gascony with his army, and to his great indignation the Earl refused to accompany him and went to Ireland instead. In August 1255 he and John Maunsel were sent to Edinburgh by the King to find out the truth regarding reports which had reached the King that his son-in-law, Alexander, King of Scotland, was being coerced by Robert de Roos and John Baliol. If possible, they were to bring the young King and Queen to him. The Earl and his companion, pretending to be the two of Roos’s knights, obtained entry to Edinburgh Castle, and gradually introduced their attendants, so that they had a force sufficient for their defense. They gained access to the Scottish Queen, who made her complaints to them that she and her husband had been kept apart. They threatened Roos with dire punishments, so that he promised to go to the King. Meanwhile the Scottish magnates, indignant at their castle of Edinburgh’s being in English hands, proposed to besiege it, but they desisted when they found they would be besieging their King and Queen. The King of Scotland apparently traveled South with the Earl, for on 24 September they were with King Henry III at Newminster, Northumberland. In July 1258 he fell ill, being poisoned with his brother William, as it was supposed, by his steward, Walter de Scotenay. He recovered but his brother died. Death and legacy: Richard died at John de Griol’s manor of Asbenfield in Waltham, near Canterbury, 14 Jul 1262 at the age of 39, it being rumored that he had been poisoned at the table of Piers of Savoy. On the following Monday he was carried to Canterbury where a mass for the dead was sung, after which his body was taken to the canon’s church at Tonbridge and interred in the choir. Thence it was taken to Tewkesbury Abbey and buried 28 Jul 1262, with great solemnity in the presence of two bishops and eight abbots in the presbytery at his father’s right hand. Family: Richard had no children by his first wife, Margaret or Megotta de Burgh. By his second wife, Maud de Lacy, daughter of the Surety John de Lacy and Margaret de Quincy, he had: Isabel de Clare, b. ca. 1240, d. 1270, m. William VII of Montferrat; Gilbert de Clare, b. 2 September 1243, d. 7 Dec 1295, 6th Earl of Hertford, 7th Earl of Gloucester; Thomas de Clare, b. ca. 1245, d. 1287, he seized control of Thomond in 1277, m. Juliana FitzGerald; Bogo de Clare, b. ca. 1248, d. 1294; Margaret de Clare, b. ca. 1250, d. 1312, m. Edmund, 2nd Earl of Cornwall; Rohese de Clare, b. ca. 1252, m. Roger de Mowbray and Eglentina, d. 1257 in infancy. His widow Maud, who had the manor of Clare and the manor and castle of Usk and other lands for her dower, erected a splendid tomb for her late husband at Tewkesbury. She arranged for the marriages of her children. She died before 10 Mar 1288.
 Gilbert de Clare, 6th Earl of Hertford, 7th Earl of Gloucester, was a powerful English noble. He was also klso known as “Red” Gilbert de Clare or “The red earl”, probably because of his hair color or fiery temper in battle. Gilbert de Clare was born at Christchurch, Hampshire, the son of Richard de Clare, Earl of Hertford and Gloucester, and of Maud de Lacy, Countess of Lincoln, daughter of John de Lacy and Margaret de Quincy. Gilbert inherited his father’s estates in 1262. He took on the titles, including Lord of Glamorgan, from 1263. Being under age at his father’s death, he was made a ward of Humphrey de Bohun, 2nd Earl of Hereford. Massacre of the Jews at Canterbury: In April 1264, Gilbert de Clare led the massacre of the Jews at Canterbury, as Simon de Montfort had done in Leicester. Gilbert de Clare’s castles of Kingston and Tonbridge were taken by the King, Henry III. However, the King allowed de Clare’s Countess Alice de Lusignan, who was in the latter, to go free because she was his niece. On 12 May 1264, de Clare and de Montfort were denounced as traitors. The Battle of Lewes: Two days later, just before the Battle of Lewes, on 14 May 1264, Simon de Montfort knighted the Earl and his brother Thomas. The Earl commanded the central division of the Baronial army, which formed up on the Downs west of Lewes. When Prince Edward had left the field in pursuit of Montfort’s routed left wing, the King and Earl of Cornwall were thrown back to the town. Henry took refuge in the Priory of St Pancras, and Gilbert accepted the surrender of the Earl of Cornwall, who had hidden in a windmill. Montfort and the Earl were now supreme and de Montfort in effect de facto King of England. Excommunication: On 20 Oct 1264, Gilbert and his associates were excommunicated by Pope Clement IV, and his lands were placed under an interdict. In the following month, by which time they had obtained possession of Gloucester and Bristol, the Earl was proclaimed to be a rebel. However at this point he changed sides as he fell out with de Montfort and the Earl, in order to prevent de Montfort’s escape, destroyed ships at the port of Bristol and the bridge over the River Severn at Gloucester. Having changed sides, de Clare shared the Prince’s victory at Kenilworth on 16 Jul 1265, and in the Battle of Evesham, 4 Aug 1265, in which de Montfort was slain, he commanded the second division and contributed largely to the victory. On 24 Jun 1268 he took the Cross at Northampton in repentance and contrition for his past misdeeds. Activities as a Marcher Lord: In October 1265, as a reward for supporting Prince Edward, Gilbert was given the castle and title of Abergavenny and honor and castle of Brecknock. At Michaelmas his disputes with Llewelyn the Last were submitted to arbitration, but without a final settlement. Meanwhile he was building Caerphilly Castle into a fortress. At the end of the year 1268 he refused to obey the King’s summons to attend parliament, alleging that, owing to the constant inroads of Llewelyn the Last, his Welsh estates needed his presence for their defence. At the death of Henry III, 16 Nov 1272, the Earl took the lead in swearing fealty to Edward I, who was then in Sicily on his return from the Crusade. The next day, with the Archbishop of York, he entered London and proclaimed peace to all, Christians and Jews, and for the first time, secured the acknowledgment of the right of the King’s eldest son to succeed to the throne immediately. Thereafter he was joint Guardian of England, during the King’s absence, and on the new King’s arrival in England, in August 1274, entertained him at Tonbridge Castle. The Welsh war in 1282: During Edward’s invasion of Wales in 1282, de Clare insisted on leading an attack into southern Wales. King Edward made de Clare the commander of the southern army invading Wales. However, de Clare’s army faced disaster after being heavily defeated at the Battle of Llandeilo Fawr. Following this defeat, de Clare was relieved of his position as the southern commander and was replaced by William de Valence, 1st Earl of Pembroke (whose son had died during the battle). Private Marcher War: In the next year, 1291, he quarrelled with the Earl of Hereford, Humphrey de Bohun, 3rd Earl of Hereford, grandson of his onetime guardian, about the Lordship of Brecknock, where de Bohun accused de Clare of building a castle on his land culminated in a private war between them. Although it was a given right for Marcher Lords to wage private war the King tested this right in this case, first calling them before a court of their Marcher peers, then realising the outcome would be colored by their likely avoidance of prejudicing one of their greatest rights they were both called before the superior court, the Kings own. At this both were imprisoned by the King, both sentenced to having their lands forfeit for life and de Clare, the Earl of Gloucester, as the aggressor, was fined 10,000 marks, and the Earl of Hereford 1,000 marks. They were released almost immediately and both of their lands completely restored to them – however they had both been taught a very public lesson and their prestige diminished and the King’s authority shown for all. Death and burial: Gilbert died at Monmouth Castle on 7 December 1295, and he was buried at Tewkesbury Abbey, on the left side of his grandfather Gilbert de Clare. His extensive lands were enjoyed by his surviving wife Joan of Acre until her death in 1307. Marriage and succession: Gilbert’s first marriage was to Alice de Lusignan, also known as Alice de Valence, the daughter of Hugh XI of Lusignan and of the family that succeeded the Marshal family to the title of the Earl of Pembroke in the person of William de Valence, 1st Earl of Pembroke. They married in 1253, when Gilbert was ten years old. She was of high birth, being a niece of King Henry, but the marriage floundered. Gilbert and Alice separated in 1267. Allegedly, Alice’s affections lay with her cousin, Prince Edward. Previous to this, Gilbert and Alice had produced two daughters: Isabella de Clare (1262-1333). After a marriage with Guy de Beauchamp, 10th Earl of Warwick having been contemplated, or possibly having taken place and then annulled, married Maurice de Berkeley, 2nd Baron Berkeley; Joan de Clare (1264-after 1302), married (1st) Duncan Macduff, 7th Earl of Fife and (2nd) Gervase Avenel. After his marriage to Alice de Lusignan was annulled in 1285, Gilbert was to be married to Joan of Acre, a daughter of King Edward I of England and his first wife Eleanor of Castile. King Edward sought to bind de Clare, and his assets, more closely to the Crown by this means. By the provisions of the marriage contract, their joint possessions and de Clare’s extensive lands could only be inherited by a direct descendant, i.e. close to the Crown, and if the marriage proved childless, the lands would pass to any children Joan may have by further marriage. On 3 Jul 1290, the Earl gave a great banquet at Clerkenwell to celebrate his marriage of 30 Apr 1290 with Joan of Acre (1272-1307) after waiting for the Pope to sanction the marriage. Edward then gave large estates to Gilbert, including one in Malvern. Disputed hunting rights on these led to several armed conflicts with Humphrey de Bohun, 3rd Earl of Hereford, that Edward resolved. Gilbert made gifts to the Priory, and also had a “great conflict” about hunting rights and a ditch that he dug, with Thomas de Cantilupe, Bishop of Hereford, that was settled by costly litigation. Gilbert had a similar conflict with Godfrey Giffard, Bishop and Administrator of Worcester Cathedral and formerly Chancellor of England. Godfrey, who had granted land to the Priory, had jurisdictional disputes about Malvern Priory, resolved by Robert Burnell, the current Chancellor. Thereafter, Gilbert and Joan are said to have taken the Cross and set out for the Holy Land. In September, he signed the Barons’ letter to the Pope, and on 2 Nov 1290, surrendered to the King, his claim to the advowson of the Bishopric of Llandaff. Gilbert and Joan had one son: also Gilbert, and three daughters: Eleanor, Margaret and Elizabeth. Gilbert, Earl of Hertford and Gloucester (1291-1314) succeeded to his father’s titles and was killed at the Battle of Bannockburn. Alianor (Eleanor) de Clare (1292-1337) married Hugh Despenser the Younger, favourite of her uncle Edward II. Hugh was executed in 1326, and Eleanor married secondly William de la Zouche. Margaret de Clare (1293–1342) married firstly Piers Gaveston (executed in 1312) and then Hugh de Audley. The youngest sister Elizabeth de Clare (1295-1360) married John de Burgh in 1308 at Waltham Abbey, then Theobald of Verdun in 1316, and finally Roger d’Amory in 1317. Each marriage was brief, produced one child (a son by the 1st, daughters by the 2nd and 3rd), and left Elizabeth a widow.
 Eleanor de Clare (1292–1337) married Hugh Despenser the Younger, favorite of her uncle Edward II. Hugh Despenser, 1st Lord Despenser (c. 1286-1326), also referred to as “the younger Despenser”, was the son and heir of Hugh le Despenser, Earl of Winchester (the elder Despenser) and Isabella daughter of William, 9th Earl of Warwick. Hugh Despenser the younger became royal chamberlain in 1318. As a royal courtier, Despenser manoeuvred into the affections of King Edward, displacing the previous favorite, Roger d’Amory. This was much to the dismay of the baronage as they saw him both taking their rightful places at court and being a worse version of Gaveston. After many outrageous acts, the barons finally prevailed upon King Edward and forced Despenser and his father into exile in August 1321. Following the exile of the Despensers, the barons who opposed them fell out among themselves, and the King summoned the two men back to England. Early in the following year, King Edward took advantage of these divisions to secure the surrender of Marcher Lord Roger Mortimer, and the defeat and execution of the Earl of Lancaster, the Despensers’ chief opponents. The pair returned and King Edward quickly reinstated Despenser as royal favorite. His time in exile had done nothing to quell his greed, his rashness, or his ruthlessness. The time from the Despensers’ return from exile until the end of Edward II’s reign was a time of uncertainty in England. With the main baronial opposition leaderless and weak, having been defeated at the Battle of Boroughbridge, and Edward willing to let them do as they pleased, the Despensers were left unchecked. They grew rich from their administration and corruption. This period is sometimes referred to as the “Tyranny”. This maladministration caused hostile feeling for them and, by proxy, Edward II. Despenser repeatedly pressed King Edward to execute Mortimer, who had been held prisoner in the Tower of London, following his surrender. However, Mortimer escaped from the Tower and fled to France. Queen Isabella had a special dislike for Hugh Despenser the younger. While Isabella was in France to negotiate between her husband and the French king, she formed a liaison with Roger Mortimer and began planning an invasion. Despenser supposedly tried to bribe French courtiers to assassinate Isabella, sending barrels of silver as payment. Roger Mortimer and the Queen invaded England in October 1326. Their forces numbered only about 1,500 mercenaries to begin with, but the majority of the nobility rallied to them throughout October and November. By contrast, very few people were prepared to fight for Edward II, mainly because of the hatred that the Despensers had aroused. The Despensers fled West with the King, with a sizable sum from the treasury. The escape was unsuccessful. Separated from the elder Despenser, the King and the younger Despenser were deserted by most of their followers, and were captured near Neath in mid-November. King Edward was placed in captivity and later forced to abdicate in favour of his son. The elder Despenser (the father) was hanged at Bristol on 27 Oct 1326, and younger Despenser (the son) was brought to trial on 24 Nov 1326, in Hereford, before Mortimer and the Queen. He was judged a traitor and a thief, and sentenced to public execution by hanging, as a thief, and drawing and quartering, as a traitor. Additionally, he was sentenced to be disembowelled for having procured discord between the King and Queen, and to be beheaded, for returning to England after having been banished. Immediately after the trial, Despenser was dragged behind four horses to his place of execution, where a great fire was lit. He was stripped naked, and Biblical verses denouncing arrogance and evil were carved into his skin. He was then hanged from a gallows 50 feet high, but cut down before he could choke to death. In Froissart’s account of the execution, Despenser was then tied to a ladder, and – in full view of the crowd – had his genitals sliced off and burned (in his still-conscious sight) then his entrails slowly pulled out, and, finally, his heart cut out and thrown into the fire. Finally, his corpse was beheaded, his body cut into four pieces, and his head mounted on the gates of London. Mortimer and Isabella feasted with their chief supporters, as they watched the execution. Four years later, in December 1330, his widow was given permission to gather and bury his remains at the family’s Gloucestershire estate, but only the head, a thigh bone and a few vertebrae were returned to her.
 Isabelle married Richard FitzAlan, 3rd Earl of Arundel, in 1321. Richard’s father, Edmund FitzAlan, was the second member of the FitzAlan family to be definitely styled Earl of Arundel. He is therefore counted variously as the 2nd, 7th or 9th Earl, depending on whether the claims of the first seven to have been Earls by tenancy are accepted. Though he had stood against Edward II in the past, Edmund FitzAlan, 2nd Earl of Arundel had loyally supported him since the 1320s. Thus it must have seemed to be politically prudent to Edmund to marry his heir Richard to the eldest daughter of the King’s closest friend and adviser Hugh le Despenser. For Hugh’s part, a large incentive for him must have been that he could expect his daughter Isabel would one day become Countess of Arundel. On 9 Feb 1321 at the royal manor Havering-atte-Bower, Isabel was duly married to Richard FitzAlan, the heir to the earldom of Arundel. Isabel was only eight at the time, while Richard was only seven. Their respective ages would come up later when Richard would try to seek an annulment. Richard and Isabel had one son, Edmund Fitzalan, born in 1327, and in 1331 Isabel’s husband became earl of Arundel. However in December 1344 Richard Fitzalan had their marriage annulled on the grounds that he had never freely consented to marry Isabel and that they both had renounced their vows at puberty but had been “forced by blows to cohabit, so that a son was born”. Isabel retired to several manors in Essex that were given to her by her ex-husband. Richard quickly remarried Eleanor of Lancaster, with whom he had apparently been having an affair. By his first marriage to Isabel Despenser he had two children: Edmund Fitzalan, who was bastardized by the annulment, married Sybil, daughter of William Montacute, 1st Earl of Salisbury; Mary (Isabel) Fitzalan (died 29 Aug 1396), married John Le Strange, 4th Lord Strange of Blackmere. By the second marriage to Eleanor Plantagenet, he had 3 sons and 3 surviving daughters: Richard, who succeeded him as 11th Earl of Arundel, John, Thomas, Joan, Alice and Eleanor. When his father died in 1376 Edmund quarreled with his half-siblings, the children of his father’s second marriage, over inheritance rights. Edmund was imprisoned in the Tower of London until he was released in 1377 by request of his brothers-in-law. After their father was executed for treason in 1326, Isabel and her youngest sister Elizabeth were the only daughters of Hugh the Younger to escape being confined in nunneries, Isabel because she was already married and Elizabeth because of her youth. Richard’s father, Edmund Fitzalan, was executed by Isabella, and Richard did not succeed to his father’s estates or titles.
 The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom Extant, Extinct, or Dormant (CP) by George Edward Cokayne lists Mary as a daughter of Richard FitzAlan and his first wife, Isabel Despenser (CP, vol 1, p. 244). CP Corrections, Volume 14, p.596 retains the identification of John Strange’s wife Mary as a daughter of Richard, the 10th Earl, but mentions an alternative possibility that Mary was instead the daughter of Edmund FitzAlan, the 9th Earl (therefore Richard’s sister). It adds that if this were so, Mary would have been aged about 40 when her son John was born. Mary (Isabel) married John Le Strange, 4th Baron Strange of Blackmere.
 The title Baron Strange of Blackmere was created once in the Peerage of England. On 13 Jan 1309 Fulk le Strange was summoned to parliament. On the death of the fifth baron in 1375, it was inherited by Elizabeth Mowbray, née le Strange. And on her death in 1383, it was inherited by Ankaret Talbot, née le Strange. And on her son’s death in 1419, the barony was inherited by Ankaret Talbot, his daughter. On her death in 1421, the barony was inherited by her uncle, John Talbot who was created Earl of Shrewsbury, Earl of Waterford and Hereditary Lord High Steward of Ireland. On the death of the 7th earl respectively in 1616, the barony fell into abeyance.
 John de Lacy was the 2nd Earl of Lincoln, of the fourth creation. He was the eldest son and heir of Roger de Lacy and his wife, Maud or Matilda de Clere (not of the de Clare family). Public Life: He was hereditary constable of Chester and, in the 15th year of King John, undertook the payment of 7,000 marks to the crown, in the space of four years, for livery of the lands of his inheritance, and to be discharged of all his father’s debts due to the exchequer, further obligating himself by oath, that in case he should ever swerve from his allegiance, and adhere to the king’s enemies, all of his possessions should devolve upon the crown. He promised also, that he would not marry without the king’s license. By this agreement it was arranged that the king should retain the castles of Pontefract and Dunnington, still in his own hands; and that he, the said John, should allow 40 pounds per year, for the custody of those fortresses. But the next year he had Dunnington restored to him, upon hostages. John de Lacy, 7th Baron of Halton Castle, 5th Lord of Bowland and hereditary constable of Chester, was one of the earliest who took up arms at the time of the Magna Charta and was appointed to see that the new statutes were properly carried into effect and observed in the counties of York and Nottingham. He was one of twenty-five barons charged with overseeing the observance of Magna Carta in 1215. He was excommunicated by the Pope. Upon the accession of King Henry III, he joined a party of noblemen making a pilgrimage to the Holy Land and did good service at the siege of Damietta. In 1232 he was made Earl of Lincoln and in 1240, governor of Chester and Beeston Castles. In 1237, his lordship was one of those appointed to prohibit Oto, the pope’s prelate, from establishing anything derogatory to the king’s crown and dignity, in the council of prelates then assembled. In the same year he was appointed High Sheriff of Cheshire, being likewise constituted Governor of the castle of Chester. Private life: He married firstly Alice in 1214 in Pontefract, daughter of Gilbert de Aquila, who gave him one daughter Joan. Alice died in 1216 in Pontefract and, after his marked gallantry at the siege of Damietta. In 1221, he married secondly Margaret de Quincy, only daughter and heiress of Robert de Quincy, Earl of Winchester, and Hawyse, 4th sister and co-heir of Ranulph de Mechines, Earl of Chester and Lincoln. Ranulph, by a formal charter under his seal, granted the Earldom of Lincoln to Hawyse, “to the end that she might be countess, and that her heirs might also enjoy the earldom.” The grant was confirmed by the king, and at the especial request of the countess, this John de Lacy, constable of Chester, through his marriage was allowed to succeed de Blondeville and was created by charter, dated Northampton, 23 Nov 1232, Earl of Lincoln, with remainder to the heirs of his body, by his wife, the above-mentioned Margaret. In the contest which occurred during the same year between the king and Richard Marshal, 3rd Earl of Pembroke, Earl Marshal, Matthew Paris states that the Earl of Lincoln was brought over to the king’s party, with John of Scotland, 7th Earl of Chester, by Peter de Rupibus, Bishop of Winchester, for a bribe of 1,000 marks. Later life: John de Lacy died on 22 Jul 1240 and was buried at the Cisterian Abbey of Stanlaw, in County Chester. The monk Matthew Paris, records: “On the 22nd day of July, in the year 1240, which was St. Magdalen’s Day, John, Earl of Lincoln, after suffering from a long illness went the way of all flesh”. Margaret, his wife, survived him and remarried Walter Marshal, 5th Earl of Pembroke.
 Maud de Lacy was an English noblewoman, being the eldest child of John de Lacy, 2nd Earl of Lincoln Margaret De Quincy 2nd Countess of Lincoln suo jure, and the wife of Richard de Clare, 5th Earl of Hertford, 6th Earl of Gloucester. She had a personality that was described as “highly-competitive and somewhat embittered” (see Mitchell, Linda Elizabeth. Portraits of Medieval Women: Family, Marriage, and Politics in England 1225-1350. Saint Martin’s Press Inc., 2002). Maud was styled Countess of Hertford and Countess of Gloucester upon her marriage to Richard de Clare. Although her mother, Margaret de Quincy, was suo jure Countess of Lincoln, this title never passed to Maud as her mother’s heir was Henry de Lacy, the son of Maud’s deceased younger brother Edmund de Lacy, Baron of Pontefract. Her eldest son was Richard de Clare, 6th Earl of Hertford, 7th Earl of Gloucester, a powerful noble during the reigns of kings Henry III of England and Edward I. Maud’s younger brother, Edmund de Lacy, Baron of Pontefract who married in 1247 Alasia of Saluzzo, by whom he had three children. Her paternal grandparents were Roger de Lacy, Baron of Pontefract and Maud de Clare, and her maternal grandparents were Robert de Quincy and Hawise of Chester, 1st Countess of Lincoln suo jure. Maud and her mother, Margaret, were never close. In fact, relations between the two women were described as strained. Throughout Maud’s marriage, the only interactions between Maud and her mother were quarrels regarding finances, pertaining to the substantial Marshal family property Margaret owned and controlled due to the latter’s second marriage on 6 Jan 1242 to Walter Marshal, 5th Earl of Pembroke, almost two years after the death of Maud’s father, John de Lacy in 1240. Despite their poor rapport with one another, Maud was, nevertheless, strongly influenced by her mother. The fact that her mother preferred her grandson, Henry over Maud did not help their relationship. Henry, who was also her mother’s ward, was made her heir, and he later succeeded to the earldom of Lincoln. Marriage to the Earl of Gloucester: On 25 Jan 1238 (her fifteenth birthday), Maud married Richard de Clare, 5th Earl of Hertford, and 6th Earl of Gloucester, son of Gilbert de Clare, 4th Earl of Hertford, 5th Earl of Gloucester and Isabel Marshal. Maud was his second wife. His first marriage, which was made clandestinely to Megotta de Burgh, ended in an annulment. Even before the annulment of the Earl’s marriage to Megotta, Maud’s parents paid King Henry III the enormous sum of 5,000 pounds to obtain his agreement to the marriage. The King supplied her dowry, which consisted of the castle of Usk, the manor of Clere, as well as other lands and manors. Throughout her marriage, Maud’s position as the wife of the most politically-significant nobleman of the 13th century was diminished by her mother’s control of a third of the Marshal inheritance and her rank as Countess of Lincoln and dowager countess of Pembroke. Richard, the heir to one-fifth of the Pembroke earldom, was also the guarantor of his mother-in-law’s dowry. In about 1250, Maud ostensibly agreed to the transfer of the manor of Navesby in Northamptonshire, which had formed the greatest part of her maritagium [marriage portion], to her husband’s young niece Isabella and her husband, William de Forz, 4th Earl of Albemarle. as part of Isabella’s own maritagium.[ Years later, after the deaths of both women’s husbands, Maud sued Isabella for the property, claiming that it had been transferred against her will. Isabella, however, was able to produce the chirograph that showed Maud’s participation in the writing of the document. According to the Common Law, this signified Maud’s agreement to the transaction, and Maud herself was “amerced for litigating a false claim”. Issue: Together Richard and Maud had seven children: Isabel de Clare (1240-before 1271), married as his second wife, William VII of Montferrat, by whom she had one daughter, Margherita. She was allegedly killed by her husband; Gilbert de Clare, 6th Earl of Hertford, 7th Earl of Gloucester (1243-1295), married firstly Alice de Lusignan of Angouleme by whom he had two daughters. He married secondly Joan of Acre, by whom he had issue; Thomas de Clare, Lord of Thomond (1245-1287), married as her first husband Juliana FitzGerald, daughter of Maurice FitzGerald, 3rd Lord of Offaly and Maud de Prendergast, by whom he had issue including Richard de Clare, 1st Lord Clare and Margaret de Clare, Baroness Badlesmere; Bogo de Clare, Chancellor of Llandaff (1248-1294); Margaret de Clare (1250-1313), married Edmund, 2nd Earl of Cornwall. Their marriage was childless; Rohese de Clare (1252-after 1316), married Roger de Mowbray, 1st Baron Mowbray, by whom she had issue and Eglantine de Clare (1257-1257). Widowhood: On 15 Jul 1262, Maud’s husband died near Canterbury. Maud designed and commissioned a magnificent tomb for him at Tewkesbury Abbey, where he was buried. She also donated the manor of Sydinghowe to the “Priory of Legh” (i.e. Canonsleigh Abbey, Devon), for the soul of Richard, formerly her husband, Earl of Gloucester and Hertford by charter dated to 1280. Their eldest son Gilbert succeeded Richard as the 6th Earl of Hertford and 7th Earl of Gloucester. Although Maud carefully arranged the marriages of her daughters, the King owned her sons’ marriage rights. She was involved in numerous lawsuits and litigations with her tenants, neighbors and relatives, including her eldest son Gilbert, who sued her for admeasurement of her dowry. In her 27 years of widowhood, Maud brought 33 suits into the central courts, and she herself was sued a total of 44 times. As a result, she was known as one of the most litigious women in the 13th century. She endowed many religious houses, including the Benedictine Stoke-by-Clare Priory, Suffolk (re-established in 1124 by Richard de Clare, 1st Earl of Hertford, having been moved from Clare Castle) and Canonsleigh Abbey, Devon, which she re-founded as a nunnery. She also vigorously promoted the clerical career of her son, Bogo and did much to encourage his ambitions and acquisitiveness. She was largely responsible for many of the benefices that were bestowed on him, which made him the richest churchman of the period. Although not an heiress, Maud herself was most likely the wealthiest widow in 13th century England. Maud died sometime between 1287 and 10 March 1289.
 William of Huntingfield was a medieval English landowner, High Sheriff of Norfolk and Suffolk and one of the Magna Carta sureties. He held Dover Castle for King John from September 1203, and in exchange the king held his son and daughter hostage. He was granted the lands seized from his disgraced brother and appointed Sheriff of Norfolk and Suffolk for 1210 and 1211. In the First Barons’ War he was an active rebel against King John and one of the twenty-five chosen to oversee the observance of the resulting Magna Carta. He subsequently supported the French invasion of England and took part in the Fifth Crusade, where he died. He had married Isabel Fitz Roger, daughter of William Fitz Roger and was succeeded by his son Roger.
 Roger De De Huntingfield, Knight, was born on 1195 in Huntingfield, England. He died on 10 Jul 1257 in Huntingfield, Blything, Suffolk, England at 62 years of age.
 Joan de Huntingfield was born about 1279. She married Sir Richard Basset, 1st Lord Basset of Weldon, son of Ralph Basset and Alianore de la Wade, about 1299. They had 3 sons: Ralph, Richard and Robert.