My English royal ancestry (Houses of Norman and Plantagenet) can be traced back to William I (“the Conqueror”), to whom I am related in multiple ways, including (possibly) through the line of one of Henry I’s many illegitimate daughters, Elizabeth (or Sibyll), who married Fergus of Galloway. Through the most direct line of descent, William I is my 28th g-grandfather through Henry I and his daughter, the Empress Matilda of England. As a result of various branches (i.e., descent through siblings of the same parents), William I is also my 29th-36th g-grandfather. Various lines of descent are outlined below. I can trace a line of descent from two of Henry I’s children, two of Henry II’s children, four of Edward I’s children (including Edward II) and two of Edward III’s children. The old-style politics of the time was a dangerous game, and one didn’t want to be on the losing side. The royals and nobles in our line were a colorful lot. If they weren’t killed in battle, then after being imprisoned and/or subjected to every torture the medieval mind could devise, an inordinately large number of them were variously beheaded, drawn and quartered, hanged, disemboweled, hacked to pieces and fed to the dogs, etc. Some of their stories are related below.
Also, through Isabella of France (1295-1358), I am descended from the last Anglo-Saxon King of England, Harold II Godwinson, who was born about 1022 and killed by William the Conqueror’s army at the Battle of Hastings in 1066 (he is her 7th g-grandfather, #714 on Isabella’s Ahnentafel Report).
My grandmother, Elizabeth Gunnell Hamlin, is a descendant of William I and most of the Kings of England through Edward III on both her father’s side and her mother’s side. She is a descendant of John “Lackland”, Henry III and Edward II (and Harold II Godwinson) on her mother’s side only.
LINE 1: William I King of England “the Conqueror” (1027 – 1087) – 28th g-grandfather – Henry I King of England (1068 – 1135) – Matilda of England Empress (1102 – 1167) – Henry II King of England (1133 – 1189) – John “Lackland” King of England (1166 – 1216) – Henry III King of England (1207 – 1272) – Edward I (Longshanks) King of England (1239 – 1307) – Edward II King of England (1284 – 1327) – Edward III King of England (1312 – 1377) – John of Gaunt Duke of Lancaster (1340 – 1399) – Joan Beaufort Countess of Westmorland (1379 – 1440) – Eleanor Neville Countess of Northumberland (1397 – 1472) – Thomas Percy Lord Egremont (1422 – 1460) – Johanna Percy (1460 – 1537) – William Harris (1490 – 1556) – William Harris (1518 – 1559) – William Harris of Shenfield (1545 – 1601) – William Harris (1596 – 1656) – Robert Harris (1630 – 1710) – William Harris (1665 – 1733) – Robert Overton Harris (1696 – 1765) – Anna Harris (1724 – 1775) – Sarah Ann Dabney (1740 – 1822) – Dabney Waller (1772 – 1849) – Elizabeth Dabney Waller (1808 – 1881) – Jacintha Ann Pollard (1833 – ) – Elizabeth Minor Hancock (1850 – 1928) – Seddie Gunnell (1875 – 1946) – Elizabeth Gunnell Hamlin (1901 – 1982) – Tor Martin Hylbom (1939 – 2009) – Tor Martin (Majerus) Hylbom
LINE 2 (Alternative line of descent through an illegitimate daughter of Henry I): William I King of England “the Conqueror” (1027 – 1087) – 29th g-grandfather – Henry I King of England (1068 – 1135) – Elizabeth or Sibylla (illegitimate) Wife of Fergus of Galloway ( – 1165) – Uchtred mac Fergusa Lord of Galloway (1120 – 1174) – Lochlann (Roland) Lord of Galloway “Constable of the King of Scots” ( – 1200) – Alan Fitz Roland Lord of Galloway (1175 – 1234) – Helen of Galloway (1190 – 1245) – Elizabeth (or Isabel) de Quincy (1220 – 1282) – Elizabeth Comyn (1248 – 1328) – Robert de Umfraville 8th Earl of Angus (1277 – 1325) – Elizabeth de Umfraville (1320 – 1381) – Eleanor de Boroughdon ( – 1380) – Joan Talboys (1360 – 1398) – Hawise Luttrell Baroness (1393 – 1421) – Sir Godfrey Hilton Baron Luttrell (1419 – 1472) – Elizabeth Hilton (1455 – 1522) – Anne Thimbleby (1487 – 1537) – Eleanor Booth (1510 – 1547) – William Hamby (1543 – 1612) – Robert Hamby (1573 – 1635) – Catherine Hamby (1615 – 1650) – Anne Hutchinson (1643 – 1716) – Ann Dyer (1672 – 1731) – Joseph Clarke (1694 – 1737) – Benjamin Clarke (1721 – 1790) – John Clarke (1780 – 1865) – Oratio Dyer Clarke (1811 – 1899) – Harriet Allen Clarke (1839 – 1898) – Clarence Clark Hamlin (1868 – 1940) – Elizabeth Gunnell Hamlin (1901 – 1982) – Tor Martin Hylbom (1939 – 2009) – Tor Martin (Majerus) Hylbom
LINE 3: LINE 1 through Henry II, then: William Longespee (1176 – 1226), 25th g-grandfather – Stephen Longespee Justiciar of Ireland, Seneschal of Gascony (1216 – 1260) – Ela Longespee (1244 – 1276) – Alan la Zouche 1st Baron la Zouche of Ashby (1267 – 1314) – Maud la Zouche (1290 – 1349) – Maud de Holand (1319 – ) – Alice de Swinnerton ( – 1350) – Nicholas de Gresley (1345 – 1380) – Thomas Gresley (1367 – 1456) – Margaret Gresley (1393 – 1456) – Sir Thomas Blount (1422 – 1468) – Anne Blount (1454 – 1501) – Robert Marbury (1490 – 1545) – William Marbury (1525 – 1581) – Francis Marbury (1555 – 1611) – Anne Marbury (1591 – 1643) – Edward (Capt.) Hutchinson (1613 – 1675) – Anne Hutchinson (1643 – 1716) – and continung as in LINE 2 through – Tor Martin (Majerus) Hylbom
LINE 4: LINE 1 through Henry II, then: Eleanor of England (1162 – 1214), 25th g-grandmother – Berengaria Queen Regnant of Castile (1180 – 1246) – Ferdinand III King of Castile (1199 – 1252) – Eleanor of Castile (1241 – 1290) – Edward II King of England (1284 – 1327) – and continuing as in LINE 1 through – Tor Martin (Majerus) Hylbom
LINE 5: LINE 3 through through Maud La Zouche, then: Elizabeth De Holland (1285 – 1387), 23rd g-grandmother – Elizabeth Boteler 4th Baroness Boteler of Wem (1345 – 1411) – Robert Ferrers 2nd Baron Ferrers of Wem (1373 – 1396) – Mary De Ferrers (1394 – 1458) – John Neville (1416 – 1482) – Joan Neville (1443 – 1486) – Agnes Gascoigne (1457 – 1504) – Jane Plumpton (1489 – ) – Anne Maleverer (1504 – 1560) – Brian Snawsell (1530 – 1558) – Robert Snawsell (1563 – 1647) – Joane Snawsell (1586 – 1656) – Robert (Gen) Overton (1609 – 1678) – William Overton (1638 – 1697) – Temperance Overton (1679 – 1710) – Robert Overton Harris (1696 – 1765) – and continuing as in LINE 1 through – Tor Martin (Majerus) Hylbom
LINE 6: LINE 1 through Edward I, then: Elizabeth of Rhuddlan (Plantagenet) (1282 – 1316), 22nd g-grandmother – Eleanor de Bohun Countess of Ormond (1304 – 1363) – Petronilla Butler (1332 – 1368) – Sir Richard Talbot 4th Baron Talbot (1361 – 1383) – Mary Talbot (1383 – 1433) – Sir Thomas Greene (1400 – 1461) – Elizabeth Greene (1421 – 1460) – Sir Edward Raleigh (1441 – 1509) – Sir Edward Raleigh (1470 – 1508) – Bridget Raleigh (1506 – 1584) – Elizabeth Cope (1529 – 1584) – Bridget Elizabeth Dryden (1563 – 1644) – Anne Marbury (1591 – 1643) – and continuing as in LINE 3 through – Tor Martin (Majerus) Hylbom
LINE 7: LINE 1 through Edward I, then: Thomas of Brotherton Plantagenet Earl of Norfolk, Marshal of England (1300 – 1338), 22nd g-grandfather – Lady Margaret Plantagenet Duchess of Norfolk (1321 – 1399) – Lady Elizabeth de Segrave Baroness of Mowbray (1338 – 1368) – Alianore de Mowbray (1364 – 1399) – Eudo Ivo de Welles (1387 – 1421) – Sir Lionel de Welles 6th Lord of Welles, Baron of Hellowe (1406 – 1461) – Eleanor Welles (1428 – 1490) – Anne Hoo (1448 – 1510) – Anne Copley (1479 – 1536) – George Lusher – Anne Lusher (1551 – 1579) – Sarah Lechford (1575 – 1638) – Sarah Browne (1600 – 1653) – Pardon Tillinghast (1622 – 1718) – Hannah Tillinghast (1682 – 1731) – Lillis Haile (1714 – 1797) – Jesse Mason (1737 – 1823) – Lydia Mason (1765 – 1812) – Lydia Baker (1788 – 1851) – Fayette B Hamlin (1812 – 1866) – Henry Fayette Hamlin (1834 – 1901) – Clarence Clark Hamlin (1868 – 1940) – and continuing as above through – Tor Martin (Majerus) Hylbom
LINE 8: LINE 1 through Edward I, then: Joan of Acre Plantagenet (1272 – 1307), 23rd g-grandmother – Alianor (Eleanor) De Clare (1292 – 1337) – Isabel Despenser (1312 – 1356) – Mary (or Isabel) FitzAlan ( – 1396) – Ankaret LeStrange 7th Baroness Strange of Blackmere (1361 – 1413) – Mary Talbot (1383 – 1433) – and continuing as in LINE 6 through – Tor Martin (Majerus) Hylbom
LINE 9: LINE 7 through Anne Hoo, then: Eleanor Copley (1470 – 1536), 15th g-grandmother – George West (1510 – 1538) – William West 1st Baron De La Warr ( – 1595) – Thomas West 2nd Baron De La Warr (1556 – 1602) – Elizabeth West (1573 – 1633) – Elizabeth Pelham (1604 – 1628) – Anne Humphrey (1625 – 1693) – Hannah Myles (1669 – 1742) – Sampson Mason (1700 – 1731) – Hannah Mason (1728 – 1798) – Reuben Baker (1758 – 1811) – Lydia Baker (1788 – 1851) – and continuing as in LINE 7 through – Tor Martin (Majerus) Hylbom
LINE 10: LINE 1 through Edward III, then: Lionel Plantagenet of Antwerp Duke of Clarence (1338 – 1368), 20th g-grandfather – Philippa Plantagenet 5th Countess of Ulster (1355 – 1378) – Elizabeth Mortimer Baroness Camoys (1371 – 1417) – Henry Percy 2nd Earl of Northumberland (1394 – 1455) – Thomas Percy Lord Egremont (1422 – 1460) – and continuing as in LINE 1 through – Tor Martin (Majerus) Hylbom
LINE 11: WARNING: Many facts are still unknown regarding Richard Ingraham, immigrant to Massachusetts in about 1630. His English ancestry is not proven. Claims of royal descent should be viewed with skepticism, although the proposed lineage is presented as a curiosity and as a guide for further research: LINE 10 through Henry Percy 2nd Earl of Northumberland, then: Henry Percy 4th Earl of Northumberland (1449 – 1489) – Henry Algernon Percy 5th Earl of Northumberland (1478 – 1527) – Thomas Percy (1504 – 1537) – Mary Percy (1532 – 1598) – Sir Henry of Red House Slingsby (1560 – 1634) – Eleanor Slingsby ( – 1657) – Arthur Ingraham (1576 – 1655) – Richard Ingraham (1600 – 1683) – Elizabeth Ingraham (1629 – 1660) – Mary Bullock (1652 – 1730) – John Haile (1677 – 1718) – Lillis Haile (1714 – 1797) – and continuing as in LINE 7 through – Tor Martin (Majerus) Hylbom
LINE 12: LINE 2 through Helen of Galloway, then: Margaret de Quincy Countess of Derby (1218 – ), 26th g-grandmother – Robert De Ferrers 6th Earl of Derby (1239 – 1279) – John De Ferrers 1st Baron Ferrers of Chartley (1271 – 1324) – Robert De Ferrers 2nd Baron Ferrers of Chartley (1309 – 1350) – Robert De Ferrers (1341 – 1381) – Robert Ferrers 2nd Baron Ferrers of Wem (1373 – 1396) – and continuing as in LINE 5 through – Tor Martin (Majerus) Hylbom
LINE 13: LINE 2 through Helen of Galloway, then: Helen de Quincy (1214 – 1296), 23rd g-grandmother – Margery la Zouche (1251 – 1329) – Euphemia Fitzroger Clavering (1267 – 1329) – Ralph Neville 2nd Baron Neville de Raby (1291 – 1367) – John Neville 3rd Baron Neville de Raby (1328 – 1388) – Ralph de Neville 1st Earl of Westmorland (1364 – 1425) – Eleanor Neville Countess of Northumberland (1397 – 1472) – and continuing as in LINE 1 through – Tor Martin (Majerus) Hylbom
 It could be argued that Edgar the Atheling, who was proclaimed as king by the Witenagemot but never crowned, was really the last Anglo-Saxon king.
 The most direct line of descent is also the most problematic, since it hinges on the connection between the noble family of Percy and the Harris family of Virginia. According to the Visitations of Essex of 1558, there was a Joane da. to Sr. Thomas Percy Knt. Who married Arthur Harris of Prickwell in Sussex (? In Essex). This Sr. Thomas Percy Knt. is said to be the 2o son of Henry Earl of Northumberland and Elianor da. & coheir to Sr. Richard Harbottell Knight. Despite what is reported in published sources, many researchers have pointed out correctly that this Sr. Thomas Percy Knt. could not refer to Sir Thomas Percy (1504-1537) who was a participant in the 1537 Bigod’s Rebellion, an act for which he was convicted of treason and hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn by Henry VIII. That Thomas Percy could not have had a daughter, Johanna, who was old enough to be the mother of William Harris (1490-1556), who is believed to be the g-grandfather of William Harris (1596-1656), immigrant to Virginia of 1621. One possible explanation, offered by William Deyo (former President of the Virginia Genealogical Society and the Tribal Historian of the Patawomeck Indians of Virginia) is that Johanna Percy is actually the sister of Sir Thomas Percy’s father, Henry Algernon Percy, 5th Earl of Northumberland (1477-1527), and that the Essex herald placed Johanna in the wrong generation. Such errors are not unknown, and it is highly unlikely that the official herald would have stated a descent from a noble family such as Percy at the beginning of the pedigree without good cause. However, Henry Percy, 4th Earl is not known to have had a daughter named Johanna. Another possible explanation could lie in the fact there there seem to have been two men by the name of “Thomas Percy” who married women by the name of “Eleanor Harbottle” in different generations. The pedigree above connects the Percy and Harris families through Thomas Percy, Lord of Egremont (1422-1460), who was the son of Henry Percy the 2nd Earl of Northumberland, and Thomas’ supposed wife Eleanor Harbottle (1426-1483). One problem, however, is that this Eleanor’s father is thought be be named “Robert” (1401-1443) and not “Richard”, as stated in the Visitations of Essex of 1558. [In any case, I am also descended from Sir Thomas Percy (1504-1537) through his daughter, Mary.] As discussed elsewhere under the heading of William Harris (1596-1656), there is also a great deal of uncertainty and even controversy regarding the English origins and descendant branches of the Harris family or families that settled in Virginia in the early 17th century. If documents exist in Virginia or England to clarify the situation, researchers most likely would have discovered them by now. Many times, the “proof” is simply not available, and researchers must construct the mostly likely explanation that harmonizes with the incomplete records and other historical clues that exist, while acknowledging the problems in the source material. The preponderence of evidence suggests a connection between these families, even if the records may unfortunately not exist that would conclusively prove the exact nature of the connection.
 Henry I was the fourth son of William I of England. He succeeded his elder brother William II as King of England in 1100 and defeated his eldest brother, Robert Curthose, to become Duke of Normandy in 1106. A later tradition called him “Beauclerc” for his scholarly interests – he could read Latin and put his learning to effective use – and “Lion of Justice” for refinements which he brought about in the royal administration, which he rendered the most effective in Europe, rationalizing the itinerant court, and his public espousal of the Anglo-Saxon legal tradition. Henry’s reign established deep roots for the Anglo-Norman realm, in part through his dynastic (and personal) choice of a Scottish princess who represented the lineage of Edmund Ironside for queen. His succession was hurriedly confirmed while his brother Robert was away on the First Crusade, and the beginning of his reign was occupied by wars with Robert for control of England and Normandy. He successfully reunited the two realms again after their separation on his father’s death in 1087. Upon his succession he granted the baronage a Charter of Liberties, which linked his rule of law to the Anglo-Saxon tradition, forming a basis for subsequent limitations to the rights of English kings and presaged Magna Carta, which subjected the king to law. The rest of Henry’s reign, a period of peace and prosperity in England and Normandy, was filled with judicial and financial reforms. He established the biannual Exchequer to reform the treasury. He used itinerant officials to curb the abuses of power at the local and regional level that had characterized William Rufus’ unpopular reign, garnering the praise of the monkish chroniclers. The differences between the English and Norman populations began to break down during his reign and he himself married a descendant of the old English royal house. He made peace with the church after the disputes of his brother’s reign and the struggles with Anselm over the English investiture controversy (1103–07), but he could not smooth out his succession after the disastrous loss of his eldest son William in the wreck of the White Ship. His will stipulated that he was to be succeeded by his daughter, the Empress Matilda, but his stern rule was followed by a period of civil war known as the Anarchy.
 Empress Matilda, also known as Matilda of England or Maude, was the daughter and heir of King Henry I of England. Matilda and her younger brother, William Adelin, were the only legitimate children of King Henry to survive to adulthood. However, her brother’s death in the White Ship disaster in 1120 resulted in Matilda being her father’s sole heir. As a child, Matilda was betrothed to and later married Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor, acquiring the title Empress. The couple had no known children and after eleven years of marriage Henry died, leaving Matilda widowed. However, she was then married to Geoffrey, Count of Anjou in a union which her father hoped would produce a male heir and continue the dynasty. She had three sons by Geoffrey of Anjou, the eldest of whom eventually became King Henry II of England. Upon the death of her father in 1135, Matilda was usurped to the throne by her rival and cousin Stephen of Blois, who moved quickly and became crowned King of England whilst Matilda was in Normandy, pregnant with her third child. Their rivalry for the throne led to years of unrest and civil war in England that have been called The Anarchy. Matilda was the first female ruler of the Kingdom of England, though the length of her effective rule was brief – a few months in 1141. She was never crowned and failed to consolidate her rule (legally and politically). For this reason, she is normally excluded from lists of English monarchs, and her rival (and cousin) Stephen of Blois is listed as monarch for the period 1135–1154. She campaigned unstintingly for her oldest son’s inheritance, living to see him ascend the throne of England in 1154.
 Henry II, also known as Henry Curtmantle (French: Court-manteau), Henry FitzEmpress or Henry Plantagenet, ruled as Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Count of Nantes, King of England (1154–89) and Lord of Ireland. At various times, he also controlled Wales, Scotland and Brittany. Henry was the son of Geoffrey of Anjou and Matilda, who was the daughter of King Henry I and took the title of Empress from her first marriage. He became actively involved by the age of 14 in his mother’s efforts to claim the throne of England, and was made the Duke of Normandy at 17. He inherited Anjou in 1151 and shortly afterwards married Eleanor of Aquitaine, whose marriage to the French king Louis VII had recently been annulled. King Stephen agreed to a peace treaty after Henry’s military expedition to England in 1153, and he inherited the kingdom on Stephen’s death a year later. Still quite young, he now controlled what would later be called the Angevin empire, stretching across much of western Europe. Henry was an energetic and sometimes ruthless ruler, driven by a desire to restore the lands and privileges of his royal grandfather, Henry I. During the early years of the younger Henry’s reign he restored the royal administration in England, re-established hegemony over Wales and gained full control over his lands in Anjou, Maine and Touraine. Henry soon came into conflict with Louis VII and the two rulers fought what has been termed a “cold war” over several decades. Henry expanded his empire, often at Louis’s expense, taking Brittany and pushing east into central France and south into Toulouse. Despite numerous peace conferences and treaties no lasting agreement was reached. Although Henry usually worked well with the local hierarchies of the Church, his desire to reform England’s relationship with the Church led to conflict with his former friend Thomas Becket, the Archbishop of Canterbury. This controversy lasted for much of the 1160s and resulted in Becket’s death in 1170.
 John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster (second creation) was a member of the House of Plantagenet, the third surviving son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. He was called “John of Gaunt” because he was born in Ghent (located in the Flemish region of Belgium), rendered in English as Gaunt. When he became unpopular later in life, scurrilous rumors and lampoons circulated that he was actually the son of a Ghent butcher, perhaps because Edward III was not present at the birth. This story always drove him to fury. As a younger brother of Edward, Prince of Wales (Edward, the Black Prince), John exercised great influence over the English throne during the minority of his nephew, Richard II, and during the ensuing periods of political strife, but was not thought to have been among the opponents of the king. Marriages and descendants: John’s first child was an illegitimate daughter, Blanche (1359-1389). Blanche was the daughter of John’s mistress Marie de St. Hilaire of Hainaut (1340-after 1399), who was a lady in waiting to his mother, Queen Philippa. The affair apparently took place before John’s first marriage. On 19 May 1359 at Reading Abbey, John married his third cousin, Blanche of Lancaster, daughter of Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster. The wealth she brought to the marriage was the foundation of John’s fortune. Blanche died of bubonic plague on 12 Sep 1369 at Bolingbroke Castle, while her husband was away at sea. Their son Henry Bolingbroke became Henry IV of England, after the duchy of Lancaster was taken by Richard II upon John’s death while Henry was in exile. Their daughter Philippa became Queen of Portugal by marrying King John I of Portugal in 1387. All subsequent kings of Portugal were thus descended from John of Gaunt. In 1371, John married Infanta Constance of Castile, daughter of King Peter of Castile, thus giving him a claim to the Crown of Castile, which he would pursue. Though John was never able to make good his claim, his daughter by Constance, Katherine of Lancaster, became Queen of Castile by marrying Henry III of Castile. During his marriage to Constance, John of Gaunt had fathered four children by a mistress, the widow Katherine Swynford (whose sister Philippa de Roet was married to Chaucer). Prior to her widowhood, Katherine had borne at least two, possibly three, children to Lancastrian knight Sir Hugh Swynford. The known names of these children are Blanche and Thomas. (There may have been a second Swynford daughter.) John of Gaunt was Blanche Swynford’s godfather. Constance died in 1394. John married Katherine in 1396, and their children, the Beauforts, were legitimised by King Richard II and the Church, but barred from inheriting the throne (excepta regali dignitate or “not eligible for the royal dignity”). From the eldest son, John, descended a granddaughter, Margaret Beaufort, whose son, later King Henry VII of England, would nevertheless claim the throne. All monarchs of England and later of Great Britain, the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth Realms from Henry IV onwards are descended from John of Gaunt. In William Shakespeare’s play The Tragedy of King Richard II, the famous England speech is spoken by the character of John of Gaunt as he lies on his deathbed (Act II, scene i, 42-54).
 Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland, was the third or fourth child (and only daughter) of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster and his mistress, later wife, Katherine Swynford. In her widowhood, she was a powerful landowner in the North of England. In 1391, at the age of twelve, Joan married Robert Ferrers, 2nd Baron Ferrers of Wem, and they had two daughters before he died in about 1395 (including a daughter, Mary, from whom we are also descended – see below). Along with her three brothers, Joan had been privately declared legitimate by their cousin Richard II of England in 1390, but for various reasons their father secured another such declaration from Parliament in January 1397. Joan was already an adult when she was legitimized by the marriage of her mother and father with papal approval. The Beauforts were later barred from inheriting the throne by a clause inserted into the legitimation act by their half-brother, Henry IV of England, although it is not clear that Henry IV possessed sufficient authority to alter an existing parliamentary statute. Soon after this declaration, on 3 Feb 1397, when she was eighteen, Joan married Ralph de Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland, who had also been married once before. When Ralph de Neville died in 1425, his lands and titles should, by law of rights, have passed on to his eldest surviving son from his first marriage, another Ralph Neville. Instead, while the title of Earl of Westmorland and several manors were passed to Ralph, the bulk of his rich estate went to his wife, Joan Beaufort. Although this may have been done to ensure that his widow was well provided for; by doing this, Ralph essentially split his family into two, and the result was years of bitter conflict between Joan and her stepchildren, who fiercely contested her acquisition of their father’s lands. Joan however, with her royal blood and connections, was far too powerful to be called to account, and the senior branch of the Nevilles received little redress for their grievances. Inevitably, when Joan died, the lands would be inherited by her own children. Joan died on 13 Nov 1440 at Howden in Yorkshire. Rather than be buried with her husband Ralph (who was not buried with his first wife, though his monument has effigies of himself and his two wives) she was entombed next to her mother in the magnificent sanctuary of Lincoln Cathedral. Joan Beaufort was the grandmother of Edward IV of England and Richard III of England, whom Henry VII defeated to take the throne. (Henry then married Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV, and their son became Henry VIII of England). King Henry’s sixth wife, Catherine Parr was also a descendant through Joan and Ralph’s son, Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury making the couple third cousins. Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, ‘the Kingmaker’, was also a descendant.
 Lady Eleanor Neville was the second daughter of Ralph de Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland (died 1425), by his second wife, Joan Beaufort, daughter of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster and Katherine Swynford. She was married first to Richard le Despenser, 4th Baron Burghersh, a grandson of Gaunt’s younger brother Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York. After his early death without issue, she married Henry Percy, 2nd Earl of Northumberland (killed at the First Battle of St Albans, 1455). Eleanor and Henry had 10 children, including two who are our known ancestors: Thomas Percy, 1st Baron Egremont (1422-1460) and Henry Percy, 3rd Earl of Northumberland (1421-1461).
 Thomas Percy, 1st Baron Egremont, was the son of Henry Percy, 2nd Earl of Northumberland and Lady Eleanor Neville. He was made Lord Egremont in 1449. Egremont was involved in the Percy-Neville feud and fought in the Battle of Heworth Moor. In the Wars of the Roses, Egremont fought on the Lancastrian side. Egremont fought in the First Battle of St Albans, where his father was killed, and he himself was killed at the battle of Northampton.
 Fergus of Galloway was King, or Lord, of Galloway from an unknown date (probably in the 1110s), until his death in 1161. He was the founder of that “sub-kingdom,” the resurrector of the Bishopric of Whithorn, the patron of new abbeys (e.g. Dundrennan Abbey), and much else besides. He became a legend after his death, although his actual life is clouded in mystery. Fergus of Galloway first appears in the historical sources in 1136. His origins and his parentage, however, are something of a mystery. Over the years, Fergus’ origins have been the subject of much discussion and even more fanciful fictional elaboration by historical writers. Fergus is known to have had in his lifetime two wives, the names of both being unknown. By these wives, though, three children are known: Gille Brigte, Uchtred and Affraic, wife to Olaf I Godredsson, King of Mann. Fergus may have married an illegitimate daughter of Henri Beauclerc, King Henry I of England. Her name, however, is unknown. One of the candidates is Sibylla, the widow of King Alaxandair I mac Maíl Choluim of Scotland, but there is little evidence for this. Another candidate could be Elisabeth; but likewise, there is little evidence. If he did marry a daughter of Henry I, the marriage can be interpreted as part of the forward policy of Henry I in the northwest of his dominions and the Irish Sea zone in general, which was engineered in the second decade of the 12th century. It may have been during this time that Fergus began calling himself rex Galwitensium (“King of Galloway”). However, while his possible father-in-law lived, Fergus, (like King David I of Scotland), seems to have remained a faithful “vassal” to Henry.
 Uchtred mac Fergusa was Lord of Galloway from 1161-1174, ruling jointly with his half-brother Gille Brigte (Gilbert). They were sons of Fergus of Galloway. Their mothers’ names are unknown, but Uchtred may have been born to one of the many illegitimate daughters of Henry I of England. As a boy he was sent as a hostage to the court of King Máel Coluim IV of Scotland. When his father, Fergus, died in 1161, Uchtred was made co-ruler of Galloway along with Gilla Brigte. They participated in the disastrous invasion of Northumberland under William I of Scotland in 1174. King William was captured, and the Galwegians rebelled, taking the opportunity to slaughter the Norman and Saxon settlers in their land. During this time Uchtred was brutally mutilated, blinded, castrated and killed by his brother Gille Brigte and Gille Brigte’s son, Máel Coluim. Gille Brigte then seized control of Galloway entire. Uchtred had married Gunhilda of Dunbar, and they were the parents of Lochlann and Eve of Galloway, wife of Walter de Berkeley.
 Lochlann (or Lachlan), also known by his French name Roland, was the son and successor of Uchtred, Lord of Galloway as the “Lord” or “sub-king” of eastern Galloway. After the death of his uncle Gille Brigte in 1185, Lochlann went about to seize the land of Gille Brigte’s heirs. In this aim he had to defeat the men who would defy his authority in the name of Gille Brigte’s heir. He seems to have done so, defeating the resistors, who were led by men called Gille Pátraic and Henric Cennédig. Yet resistance continued under a warrior called Gille Coluim of Galloway. Lochlann’s aims moreover encouraged the wrath of a more important political figure that any of the above. King Henry II of England was outraged. A few years before Gille Brigte’s death, Henry had taken his son and successor Donnchad as a hostage. Hence Henry was the patron and protector of the man Lochlann was trying to disinherit. When King William of Scotland was ordered to visit Henry in southern England, William was told that Lochlann must be stopped. However, William and Lochlann were friends, and so in the end Henry himself brought an army to Carlisle, and threatened to invade unless Lochlann would submit to his judgment. Lochlann did so. As it transpired, Lochlann kept most of Galloway, and Donnchad was given the new “Mormaerdom” of Carrick in compensation. More than any previous Lord of Galloway, he was the loyal man and vassal of the King of Scotland. After all, he owed his lands to the positive influence of King William. Whereas Lochlann’s grandfather, Fergus had called himself King of Galloway, Lochlann’s favorite title was “Constable of the King of Scots”. Lochlann had led William’s armies north into Moireabh against the pretender Domnall mac Uilleim, who claimed the Scottish throne as a grandson of King Donnchad II of Scotland. Lochlann defeated him in 1187 at the Battle of Mam Garvia, a mysterious location probably near Dingwall. Lochlann, unlike his uncle Gille Brigte, welcomed French and English colonization into his eastern lands. In this, he was following his overlord, King William I of Scotland. Of all the Lords of Galloway, Lochlann is the least mentioned in the Gaelic annals, suggesting that he had lost touch somewhat with his background in the world of greater Irish Sea Gaeldom. In 1200, he was in the company of King William in England, who was giving homage to the new king, John. Lochlann used the opportunity to make legal proceeding in Northampton regarding the property claims of his wife, Helena, daughter and heiress of Richard de Morville. It was here that he met his death and was buried. Lochlann and Helena had a son Alan, who succeeded to Galloway.
 Alan Fitz Roland was the last of the MacFergus dynasty of quasi-independent Lords of Galloway. He was also hereditary Constable of Scotland. He was the son of Roland, or Lochlann, Lord of Galloway and Helen de Morville. His date of birth is uncertain, but he was considered an adult in 1196. In right of his mother, he inherited the de Morville Lordship of Lauderdale, as well as others in that vicinity. West of Blainslie, in Lauderdale, but in the Lordship of Melrose, are the lands of Threepwood, which were granted by Alan, Constable of Scotland, to the monks of Melrose between 1177 and 1204. In 1212 Alan responded to a summons from King John I of England by sending 1,000 troops to join the war against the Welsh. In this year he also sent one of his daughters to England as a hostage. She died in 1213 in the custody of her maternal uncle. Alan is listed as one of the 16 men who counseled King John regarding the Magna Carta. Alan, like his forebears, maintained a carefully ambiguous relationship with both the English and Scottish states, acting as a vassal when it suited his purpose and as an independent monarch when he could get away with it. His considerable sea power allowed him to supply fleets and armies to aid the English King John in campaigns both in France and Ireland. In 1225, Alan lent military aid to Ragnvald Godredsson, King of the Isles against Ragnvald’s half-brother, Olaf. Sometime later, Alan’s illegitimate son, Thomas, was married to Ragnvald’s daughter. The marriage gave Alan a stake in the kingship, and it appears that Thomas was intended to succeed to the Kingship of the Isles. However, the marriage appears to have angered the Manx people, and Ragnvald was deposed from the kinship and replaced by Olaf in 1226. Ragnvald may well have gone into exile at Alan’s court. In 1228, Alan and his brother, Thomas, and Ragnvald, attacked and devastated the Isle of Man, while Olaf was absent in the Hebrides. Alan died in 1234 and is buried at Dundrennan Abbey in Galloway. Alan was married three times. His first wife was Helen daughter of Roger de Lacy, Constable of Chester. His second marriage, which took place in 1209, was to Margaret (d. before 1228), eldest daughter of David, Earl of Huntingdon (d. 1219). His third marriage was to Rose (d. after 1237), daughter of Hugh de Lacy, Earl of Ulster (d. 1242). Alan had numerous children from his first two marriages, although only daughters reached adulthood. His eldest daughter from his first marriage, Helen, married Roger de Quincy (d. 1264). One daughter from his second marriage, Christina (or Christiana) (d. 1246), married William de Forz (d. 1260). Another daughter from his second marriage, Dervorguilla (d. 1290), married John de Balliol (d. 1314). Alan also had bastard son, Thomas, who survived into adulthood. With Alan’s death his holdings were divided between his three daughters and their husbands. A popular attempt was made within Galloway to establish his illegitimate son, Thomas, as ruler, but this failed, and Galloway’s period as an independent political entity came to an end.
 Helen married Roger de Quincy, 2nd Earl of Winchester (1195-1264) a nobleman who was prominent on both sides of the Anglo-Scottish border, as Earl of Winchester and Constable of Scotland. He was the second son of Saer de Quincy, 1st Earl of Winchester, and Margaret de Beaumont. He probably joined his father on the Fifth Crusade in 1219, where the elder de Quincy fell sick and died. His elder brother having died a few years earlier, Roger thus inherited his father’s titles and properties. However, he did not take possession of his father’s lands until February 1221, probably because he did not return to England from the crusade until then. He did not formally become earl until after the death of his mother in 1235. Roger married Helen of Galloway (b.c1208), eldest daughter and co-heiress of Alan, Lord of Galloway. Without legitimate sons to succeed him, Alan’s lands and dignities were divided between the husbands of his three daughters, so Roger acquired Alan’s position as Constable of Scotland, and one-third of the lordship of Galloway (although the actual title of Lord of Galloway went through Helen’s half-sister Devorguilla to her husband John I de Balliol). The Galwegians rebelled under Gille Ruadh, not wanting their land divided, but the rebellion was suppressed by Alexander II of Scotland. Roger ruled his portion of Galloway strictly, and the Galwegians revolted again in 1247, forcing Roger to take refuge in a castle. Faced with a siege and little chance of relief, Roger and a few men fought their way out and rode off to seek help from Alexander, who raised forces to again suppress the rebellion. In the following years Roger was one of the leaders of the baronial opposition to Henry III of England, although he fought for Henry against the Welsh in the 1250s and 1260s. Following Helen’s death in 1245, Roger married Maud de Bohun, daughter of Humphrey de Bohun, 2nd Earl of Hereford, around 1250. Maud died only two years later, and Roger married his third wife, Eleanor de Ferrers, daughter of William de Ferrers, 5th Earl of Derby the same year. Roger had three daughters by his first wife, but no sons. His subsequent marriages produced no issue. After his death his estates were divided between the daughters, and the earldom of Winchester lapsed. The three daughters of Roger and Helen of Galloway were: Ellen, who married Alan la Zouche, Lord Zouche of Ashby (1205-1270) – grandfather of Alan la Zouche, husband of Eleanor de Segrave, above); Elizabeth (also known as Isabel), who married Alexander Comyn, 2nd Earl of Buchan; Margaret (or Margery), who married William de Ferrers, 5th Earl of Derby (and was thus stepmother to her own stepmother).
 Elizabeth married Alexander Comyn, 2nd Earl of Buchan (died 1289), a Scoto-Norman magnate who was one of the most important figures in the 13th century Kingdom of Scotland. He was the son of William Comyn, jure uxoris Earl of Buchan, and Marjory, Countess of Buchan, the heiress of the last native Scottish Mormaer of Buchan, Fergus. During his long career, Alexander was Justiciar of Scotia (1258–89), Constable of Scotland (1275–89), Sheriff of Wigtown (1263–66), Sheriff of Dingwall (1264–66), Ballie of Inverie (in Knoydart) and finally, Guardian of Scotland (1286–89) during the first interregnum following the death of King Alexander III. In 1284 he joined with other Scottish noblemen who acknowledged Margaret of Norway as the heiress to King Alexander. He died sometime after 10 Jul 1289. Alexander had at least nine children with his wife, Elisabeth, daughter of Roger de Quincy, 2nd Earl of Winchester.
 Elizabeth married Gilbert de Umfraville, Earl of Angus (1245–1308) was the first of the Anglo-French de Umfraville line to rule the Earldom of Angus in his own right. His father was Gilbert de Umfraville (d. shortly before 13 Mar 1245), a Norman, and feudal Baron of Prudhoe in Northumberland, and his mother was Matilda, Countess of Angus. He succeeded his father in infancy. He also carried on the line of the earlier Gaelic earls through his mother. He succeeded her sometime after 1247 (when she was still living with her third husband Richard de Dover) as an infant, certainly no older than three. Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, paid £10,000 to act as Gilbert’s warden. Gilbert eventually grew into his inheritance, and although he was primarily an English magnate, there are still a few of his recorded grants. Gilbert was the nominal ruler of the province for more than half a century. As Earl of Angus he was summoned in 1276 for a campaign in Gwynedd against Llywelyn ap Gruffudd. In 1284 he attended the parliament with other Scottish noblemen who acknowledged Margaret of Norway as the heir to King Alexander. In 1296 he again joined Edward I in his conquest of Scotland. He also founded a chantry for two priests at Prudhoe castle to celebrate mass daily. He died in 1308, and was succeeded by his second son, Robert de Umfraville, Earl of Angus.
 Robert de Umfraville, 8th Earl of Angus (c. 1277-1325) was an Anglo-Norman baron in Northumberland and the eighth Earl of Angus. He was the second son of Gilbert de Umfraville and Elizabeth Comyn, daughter of Alexander Comyn, Earl of Buchan. He was more than thirty years old at his father’s death. He adhered to Edward II both against Scots and barons, and was regularly summoned to the English parliaments as Earl of Angus. He fought at the Battle of Bannockburn, and was taken prisoner after the battle by Robert Bruce, but soon released. Though formerly in opposition to the Despensers, he sat in judgment on Thomas of Lancaster. Bruce deprived him of his Scottish estates and title, and before 1329 the real earldom had been vested in the House of Stuart, from whom it passed in 1389 to a bastard branch of the Douglases. Robert married twice. His first wife was Lucy, sister and heiress of William of Kyme, whose considerable estates in Yorkshire and Lincolnshire, including the castle of Kyme, passed thus to the Umfravilles. By her he had a son Gilbert and a daughter Elizabeth. By his second wife, Eleanor, he had two sons, Robert and Thomas.
 Eleanor is an ancester of several notable individuals: President George Washington (11th g-grandmother [gg]), Charles, Prince of Wales (19th gg), PM Winston Churchill (17th gg), Princess Diana Spencer (17th gg) and Presidents Bush and Roosevelt.
 William Longespée, jure uxoris 3rd Earl of Salisbury was an English noble, primarily remembered for his command of the English forces at the Battle of Damme and for remaining loyal to King John. His nickname ‘Longespée’ is generally taken as a reference to his great size and the outsize weapons he used to wield. He was an illegitimate son of Henry II of England. His mother was unknown for many years, until the discovery of a charter of William mentioning “Comitissa Ida, mater mea” (English: “Countess Ida, my mother”). This Ida de Tosny, a member of the prominent Tosny or Toesny family, later (1181) married Roger Bigod, 2nd Earl of Norfolk. King Henry acknowledged William as his son and gave him the Honor of Appleby, Lincolnshire in 1188. Eight years later, his half-brother, King Richard I, married him to a great heiress, Ela of Salisbury, 3rd Countess of Salisbury in her own right, and daughter of William of Salisbury, 2nd Earl of Salisbury.
 Ela was born in 1244 at Salisbury, Wiltshire, England, the eldest daughter and co-heiress of Stephen Longespee, Justiciar of Ireland, Seneschal of Gascony, and Emmeline de Ridelsford. Her paternal grandmother was Ela, Countess of Salisbury, who had founded Lacock Abbey, and for whom she was named. Ela had a younger sister, Emmeline, who became the second wife of Maurice FitzGerald, 3rd Lord of Offaly in 1273. In about 1266 in Northamptonshire, she married Sir Roger La Zouche, Lord of Ashby, the son of Sir Alan La Zouche and Helen de Quincy. Their marriage produced one son: Alan la Zouche, 1st Baron la Zouche of Ashby (19 October 1267 – 25 March 1314), married Eleanor de Segrave, by whom he had three daughters. Ela died on about 19 July 1276 at the age of 32. Her younger sister Emmeline, co-heiress to their father and the wife of the 3rd Lord of Offaly, did not bear any children. Thus when she died in 1291, her property was inherited by Maud La Zouche, Baroness Holland, the daughter of Ela’s only son, Alan.
 Alan la Zouche, 1st Baron la Zouche of Ashby was born at North Molton, Devonshire, the only son of Roger La Zouche and his wife, Ela Longespee, daughter of Stephen Longespee and Emmeline de Ridelsford. He received seisin of his father’s lands after doing homage on 13 Oct 1289. Alan was governor of Rockingham Castle and steward of Rockingham Forest, England. Alan La Zouche died without any sons at the age of 46, and his barony fell into abeyance among his daughters.
 Maud la Zouche married Robert de Holland, 1st Baron Holand (1283-1328), an English nobleman, born in Lancashire. He was a son of Sir Robert de Holland of Upholland, Lancashire and Elizabeth, daughter of William de Samlesbury. He was a favorite official of Thomas, 2nd Earl of Lancaster and had been knighted by 1305. His favored treatment by the powerful earl caused his rival knights in the area, led by Sir Adam Banastre, Sir Henry de Lea, and Sir William de Bradshagh (Bradshaw), to start a campaign of violence towards him and the earl’s other supporters known as the Banastre Rebellion. The rebels protested against the earl’s actions and authority by attacking the homes of his supporters and several castles, including Liverpool Castle. Sir Robert later assisted in the hunt for fugitives after the rebels had been routed in Preston by a force under the command of the Sheriff. The manors of Thornton and Bagworth was acquired by him in 1313. From 1314-1321 he was called to Parliament as a member of the House of Lords. In 1322 his part in the Battle of Boroughbridge, when he defected from Lancaster to the King, was deemed treacherous and cowardly and led to his disfavor. Although King Edward III of England would later pardon him, the partisans of the Earl of Lancaster considered him a traitor and had him executed. The execution occurred in 1328 by beheading in Essex. His head was sent to the new earl and his body to Lancashire to be buried.
 As a child, Maud was affianced to marry John de Mowbray, 3rd Lord Mowbray. However, this marriage did not take place and she married to Thomas de Swinnerton, 3rd Lord Swinnerton of Swinnerton sometime after 1331. Thomas was at the Battle of Crécy in 1346 and the siege of Calais in 1347. In 1357 he was a prisoner in Scotland and the King gave £100 towards his ransom. Thomas is said to have died in December 1361.
 The tradition that Alice Swinnerton, wife of Nicholas de Gresley, is the daughter of Thomas Swinnerton has been challenged in an article by Nathaniel L. Taylor, “The Alleged Gresley-Swinnerton Marriage: A Closer Examination” (refer to link in “Library”).
 One source has cited a royal descent for Margaret’s husband, Sir Thomas Blount (d. 1456), as follows (I have not investigated further): Alfonso IX, King of León (d. 1230) + Berenguela, dau. Alfonso VIII, King of Castile by Eleanor, daughter of Henry II, King of England – Alfonso de Molina (1203-1272), had by an unidentified mistress: Urraca Alfonso + García Gómez Carrillo, ‘él de los garfios’ (living 1264) – García Gómez Carrillo + Elvira Alvarez Osorio – Juana García Carrillo + Diego Gutiérrez de Ceballos (d. 1330) [The ancestry of Juana García Carrillo is disputed in secondary sources, though her grandson, Pero López de Ayala, asserts that his grandmother’s grandfather was García Gómez Carrillo, ‘él de los garfios’, who is known to have had Urraca, illegitimate daughter of the infante Alfonso de Molina, as wife. However, this reconstruction of the Carrillo family disagrees with other available modern reconstructions, which however are not trustworthy in themselves. Refer to: Todd A. Farmerie and Nathaniel L. Taylor, “Notes on the Ancestry of Sancha de Ayala,” New England Historical and Genealogical Register 103 (1998), 36-48. Gens. 8-16: Meredith B. Colket, Jr., The English Ancestry of Anne Marbury Hutchinson & Katherine Marbury Scott (Philadelphia, 1936). Milton Rubincam, “The Spanish Ancestry of American Colonists”, National Genealogical Society Quarterly (December, 1963), 236; John Wentworth, The Wentworth Genealogy: English and American, 3 vols. (Chicago, 1870). Gens. 19-23: Nathaniel L. Taylor, “Three Calebs and a ‘Lara’: Untangling Gloucester Lanes,” NEHGS Nexus 16 (1999), 106-109.] – Elvira Alvarez de Ceballos + Fernán Pérez de Ayala – Inés Alfonso de Ayala + Diego Gómez de Toledo – Sancha de Ayala + Sir Walter Blount (1348-1403) – Sir Thomas Blount (d. 1456), Treasurer of Normandy under Henry V + Margaret Gresley. Also: Henri I, King of France (d. 1060) + Anna, daughter of Yaroslav, Grand Prince of Kiev – Hugh Magnus + Adelaide de Vermandois – Isabel de Vermandois + William de Warenne, Earl of Surrey (d. 1138) – Gundred + Roger de Beaumont, Earl of Warwick (d. 1153) – Waleran de Newburgh, Earl of Warwick (d. 1203) + Alice de Harcourt – Alice de Newburgh + William Mauduit of Hanslope (d. 1257) – Isabel Mauduit + William de Beauchamp of Elmley – Isabel de Beauchamp, widow of Henry Lovet + William le Blount (d. 1280) [Comment: This assumes the identity of Isabel, wife of William le Blount, as the widow of Henry Lovet as above. CP only states it as a possibility, but Croke provides other support for this identification, including the use of Beauchamp arms by Isabel’s son Piers le Blount.] – Sir Walter le Blount (d. 1324), M.P. Worcester, 1318, 1321 + Joan de Sodington – Sir John le Blount (d. 1358) + Isolde de Mountjoy – Sir Walter Blount (1348-1403) + Sancha de Ayala (see above, for continuation). Sources: Weis, Ancestral Roots, 7th ed., line 84, etc.; Complete Peerage 9:329 (“Mountjoy”); Europäische Stammtafeln, Neue Folge 3:699, 704.
 Francis Marbury, was a Cambridge educated English clergyman, school master and Puritan reformer, now remembered as a playwright and the father of Anne Hutchinson. As a young man he collided with the church authorities, and in particular with John Aylmer, over the issue of the provision of well-educated preachers. Aylmer called him an “overthwart, proud, puritan knave” in November 1578, and sent him to the Marshalsea, prison after hearing Marbury’s views on financing preachers by mulcting (fining) the bishops: “A man might cut a good large thong out of your hyde and the rest, and it would not be missed”. He was twice imprisoned, and spent time in Northampton, and Alford, Lincolnshire, unable to preach. He became lecturer at St Saviour, Southwark. With the support of Richard Vaughan, the Bishop of London, he was rehabilitated and moved to London. He was rector of St Martin Vintry in 1605, of St Pancras, Soper Lane in 1608, and of St Margaret, New Fish Street in 1610. Marbury was married twice producing eighteen children of which several survived to adulthood. Two daughters are remembered in early American colonial history. Anne Hutchinson, the early dissident pioneer and Protestant reformer, was his second daughter by his second marriage. Following in her father’s footsteps, she was a reformer who was a pioneer settler in Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and New Netherlands and the unauthorized minister of a dissident church discussion group. His daughter Katherine married Richard Scott, moved to New England, and became one of the first Quakers in Providence.
 We are also descended from Anne Hutchinson’s son, Edward Dyer (1670 – 1760).
 Eleanor of England (known in Castilian as Leonor) was Queen of Castile and Toledo as wife of Alfonso VIII of Castile. She was a daughter of Henry II of England and his wife, Duchess Eleanor of Aquitaine. Eleanor was a younger maternal half-sister of Marie de Champagne and Alix of France. She was a younger sister of William IX, Count of Poitiers, Henry the Young King, Matilda, Duchess of Saxony, Richard I of England and Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany. She was also an older sister of Queen Joan of Sicily and King John of England. When she was 14 years old (before 17 Sep 1177), she was married to King Alfonso VIII of Castile in Burgos. The marriage was arranged to secure the Pyreneean border, with Gascony offered as her dowry. Of all Eleanor of Aquitaine’s daughters, her namesake Eleanor best inherited her mother’s political influence. She was almost as powerful as her husband, who specified in his will that she was to rule alongside their son in the event of his death. It was she who persuaded him to marry their daughter Berengaria to the King of Leon in the interest of peace. When Alfonso died, his Queen was reportedly so devastated with grief that she was unable to preside over the burial. Their eldest daughter, Berengaria, instead performed these honors. Eleanor then took sick and died only twenty-eight days after her husband. She was buried at Las Huelgas Abbey in Burgos.
 Berengaria (Castilian: Berenguela) was Queen regnant of Castile in 1217 and Queen consort of León from 1197-1204. The eldest daughter of King Alfonso VIII of Castile and his wife, Eleanor of England, she was the great granddaughter of another Berengaria, the wife of Alfonso VII of León and Castile and sister of Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona. In the maternal line she was the granddaughter of King Henry II of England and another important woman of the age, Eleanor of Aquitaine. At the time of her birth, Berengaria was the only child of the king and queen, as those born earlier had not survived. Therefore she was the heir apparent to the throne of Castile, and hence a greatly desired party in all of Europe. Berengaria’s first engagement was agreed in 1187 when her hand was sought by Conrad, Duke of Rothenburg and fifth child of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa. The next year, in Seligenstadt, Germany, the marriage contract was signed. Conrad then marched to Castile, where in Carrión the engagement was celebrated and the young count was knighted. The marriage was not consummated, at first due to Berengaria’s age and later because the king and queen, in 1189, had a son, Ferdinand, who was then designated heir to the throne. At this, Emperor Frederick, seeing his aspirations in Castile frustrated, lost all interest in continuing with his son’s wedding in spite of the princess’s dowry of 42,000 aureos. Conrad and Berengaria never saw each other again. Berengaria requested an annulment of the engagement from the Pope, influenced, no doubt, by third parties such as her grandmother Eleanor of Aquitaine, who was not interested in having a Hohenstaufen as a neighbor to her French fiefdoms. But those fears would later be neutralized when the duke was assassinated in 1196. Two years later, Berengaria married King Alfonso IX of León, her first cousin once removed, in Valladolid. They had five children: Berengaria (1198-1235) , married John of Brienne, King of Jerusalem; Constance (1200-1242), a nun in the Abbey of las Huelgas; Ferdinand III (1201-1252), King of Castile and León; Eleanor (1202) and Alfonso (1203-1272), Lord of Molina and Mesa by his first marriage. In 1204, Pope Innocent III annulled the marriage of Berengaria and Alfonso on the grounds of consanguinity, despite the fact that Celestine III had permitted it at the time. This was the second annulment for Berengaria as well as for Alfonso, and they vehemently sought a dispensation in order to stay together. But this pope was one of the harshest on matrimonial issues and denied their request, although they succeeded in having their children considered legitimate. Her marriage dissolved, Berengaria returned to Castile and to her parents, where she dedicated herself to the care of her children. On the death of Alfonso VIII in 1214, the crown passed to his heir prince Henry (third and sole surviving son of the late king), who was only ten years old. Thus began a period of regency, first under the young king’s mother, lasting 24 days until her own death, and then under his sister and heir presumptive Berengaria. At this point internal strife began, instigated by the nobility, primarily the House of Lara. This forced Berengaria to cede guardianship of the king and the regency of the realm to Count Álvaro Núñez de Lara in order to avoid civil conflict in Castile. In February, 1216, an extraordinary parliamentary session was held in Valladolid, attended by such Castilian magnates as Lope Díaz II de Haro, Gonzalo Rodríguez Girón, Álvaro Díaz de Cameros, Alfonso Téllez de Meneses and others, who agreed, with the support of Berengaria, to make common cause against Álvaro Núñez de Lara. At the end of May the situation in Castile had grown perilous for Berengaria, so she decided to take refuge in the castle of Autillo de Campos, which was held by Gonzalo Rodríguez Girón (one of her allies) and sent her son Ferdinand to the court of León and his father, Alfonso IX. On 15 Aug 1216, an assembly of all the magnates of Castile was held to attempt to reach an accord that would prevent civil war, but disagreements led the families of Girón, Téllez de Meneses, and Haro to break definitively with Álvaro de Lara. Circumstances changed suddenly when Henry died on 6 Jun 1217 after receiving a head wound from a tile which came loose accidentally while he was playing with some other children at the palace of the Bishop of Palencia. His guardian, Count Álvaro Núñez de Lara, tried to hide the fact, taking the king’s body to the castle of Tariego, although it was inevitable that the news should reach Berengaria. The new sovereign was well aware of the danger her former husband posed to her reign. Being her brother’s closest agnate, it was feared that he would claim the crown for himself. Therefore, she kept her brother’s death and her own accession secret from Alfonso before finally abdicating in their son’s favor on 31 Aug 1217. Although she did not wish to be queen, Berengaria was always at her son’s side as an advisor, intervening in state policy, albeit in an indirect manner. In this way she arranged the marriage of her son with princess Elisabeth of Hohenstaufen (known as Beatriz in Castile), daughter of Duke Philip of Swabia and granddaughter of two emperors: Frederick Barbarossa and Isaac II Angelos of Byzantium. This union with such an important family improved the lineage of the Castilian monarchy and opened the way for Ferdinand to participate actively in European affairs. The wedding took place on 30 Nov 1219. Another instance in which Berengaria’s mediation stood out developed in 1218 when the scheming Lara family, still headed by former regent Álvaro Núñez de Lara, conspired to have Alfonso IX, King of León and King Ferdinand’s father, invade Castile to seize his son’s throne. However, the death of Count Lara facilitated the intervention of Berengaria, who got father and son to sign the Pact of Toro on 26 Aug 1218, putting an end to confrontations between Castile and León. In 1222, Berengaria intervened anew in favor of her son, achieving the ratification of the Convention of Zafra, thereby making peace with the Laras by arranging the marriage of Mafalda, daughter and heiress of the Lord of Molina, Gonzalo Pérez de Lara, to her own son and King Ferdinand’s brother, Alfonso. In 1224 she arranged the marriage of her daughter Berengaria to John of Brienne, a maneuver which brought Ferdinand III closer to the throne of León, since John was the candidate Alfonso IX had in mind to marry his eldest daughter Sancha. By proceeding more quickly, Berengaria prevented the daughters of her former husband from marrying a man who could claim the throne of León. But perhaps her most decisive intervention on Ferdinand’s behalf took place in 1230, when Alfonso IX died and designated as heirs to the throne his daughters Sancha and Dulce from his first marriage to Theresa of Portugal, superseding the rights of Ferdinand III. Berengaria met with the princesses’ mother and succeeded in the ratification of the Treaty of las Tercerías, by which they renounced the throne in favor of their half-brother in exchange for a substantial sum of money and other benefits. Thus were the thrones of León and Castile united in the person of Ferdinand III. She intervened again in the second marriage of Ferdinand after the death of Elisabeth of Hohenstaufen, although they had had plenty of children, but with the aim that the king’s virtue not be diminished with illicit relations. This time, she chose a French noblewoman, Joan of Dammartin, a candidate put forth by the king’s aunt and Berengaria’s sister Blanche, widow of King Louis VIII of France. Berengaria behaved like an actual queen while her son Ferdinand was in the south, on his long campaigns of the Reconquista. She governed Castile and León with the skill that always characterized her, assuring him that she had his back well covered. She met with her son a final time in Pozuelo de Calatrava in 1245, afterwards returning to Castile, where she died the next year.
 Saint Ferdinand III, T.O.S.F., was the King of Castile from 1217 and King of León from 1230. He was the son of Alfonso IX of León and Berenguela of Castile. Through his second marriage he was also Count of Aumale. Ferdinand III was one of the most successful kings of Castile, securing not only the permanent union of the crowns of Castile and León, but also masterminding the most expansive campaign of Reconquista yet. By military and diplomatic effort, Ferdinand III greatly expanded the dominions of Castile into southern Spain, annexing many of the great old cities of al-Andalus, including the old Andalusian capitals of Córdoba and Seville, and establishing the boundaries of the Castilian state for the next two centuries. He was canonized in 1671 by Pope Clement X and, in Spanish, he is known as Fernando el Santo, San Fernando or San Fernando Rey. In 1219, Ferdinand married Elisabeth of Hohenstaufen (1203-1235), daughter of the German king Philip of Swabia and Irene Angelina. Elisabeth was called Beatriz in Spain. Their children were: Alfonso X, his successor, Frederick, Ferdinand (1225-1243/1248), Eleanor (born 1227) and died young, Berengaria (1228-1289), a nun at Las Huelgas, Henry and Philip (1231-1274), Sancho, Archbishop of Toledo and Seville (1233-1261), John Manuel, Lord of Villena and Maria, died an infant in 1235. Second marriage: After he was widowed, he married Joan, Countess of Ponthieu, before August 1237. They had four sons and one daughter: Ferdinand (1239-1260), Count of Aumale, Eleanor (c.1241-1290), married Edward I of England, Louis (1243-1269), Simon (1244), who died young and buried in a monastery in Toledo and John (1245), who died young and buried at the cathedral in Córdoba. Today Saint Fernando can still be seen in the Cathedral of Seville, for he rests enclosed in a marvelous gold and crystal casket worthy of the king. His golden crown still encircles his head as he reclines beneath the statue of the Virgin of the Kings. Several places named San Fernando were founded across the Spanish Empire in his honor.
 Eleanor of Castile was the first queen consort of Edward I of England. She was also Countess of Ponthieu in her own right from 1279 until her death in 1290, succeeding her mother and ruling together with her husband. Arranged royal marriages in the Middle Ages were not always happy, but available evidence indicates that Eleanor and Edward were devoted to each other. Edward is among the few medieval English kings not known to have conducted extramarital affairs or fathered children out of wedlock. The couple were rarely apart. She accompanied him on military campaigns in Wales, famously giving birth to their son Edward on 25 Apr 1284 in a temporary dwelling erected for her amid the construction of Caernarfon Castle. Contemporary evidence shows clearly that Eleanor had no impact on the political history of Edward’s reign. Even in diplomatic matters her role was minor, though Edward did heed her advice on the age at which their daughters could marry foreign rulers. Otherwise she merely bestowed gifts on visiting princes or envoys. Edward always honored his obligations to Alfonso X, but even when Alfonso’s need was desperate in the early 1280s, Edward did not send English knights to Castile. He sent only knights from Gascony, which was closer to Castile. In England, Eleanor did mediate disputes of a minor nature between Edward’s subjects, but only with Edward’s consent and only with the help of ranking members of his council. Edward was prepared to resist her demands, or to stop her, if he felt she was going too far in any of her activities, and expected his ministers to do likewise. Eleanor of Castile’s queenship is significant in English history for the evolution of a stable financial system for the king’s wife, and for the honing this process gave the queen-consort’s prerogatives. The estates Eleanor assembled became the nucleus for dower assignments made to later queens of England into the 15th century, and her involvement in this process solidly established a queen-consort’s freedom to engage in such transactions. Few later queens exerted themselves in economic activity to the extent Eleanor did, but their ability to do so rested on the precedents settled in her lifetime.
 Elizabeth de Holland married William Boteler 3rd Baron Boteler of Wem (2nd creation) (1331-1369).
 Elizabeth Boteler married Robert Ferrers 1st Baron Ferrers of Wem (1341-1381). Robert was the son of Robert de Ferrers, 2nd Baron Ferrers of Chartley (1309-1350), who inherited the title Baron Ferrers of Chartley upon his father’s death from poisoning in Gascony in 1324 and was summoned to parliament on 25 February 1342. Robert, 2nd Baron served frequently in the Scottish and French wars of Edward III as well as participating the victory at Cressy. Before 20 Oct 1333, he married a woman named Margaret. They had one son, John who succeeded his father as John de Ferrers, 3rd Baron Ferrers of Chartley. After the death of Margaret, Robert remarried to Joan de la Mote before 1350. They had one son, Sir Robert Ferrers, summoned to parliament as the 4th Baron Boteler of Wem Jure uxoris through his marriage to Elizabeth Boteler, 4th Baroness Boteler of Wem.
 Sir Robert Ferrers, 2nd Baron Ferrers of Wem was the son of Sir Robert Ferrers, 1st Baron Ferrers of Wem (created by Writ of Summons dated 28 Dec 1375, and Elizabeth Boteler, 4th Baroness Boteler of Wem, who died in June 1411, and paternal grandson of Robert de Ferrers, 2nd Baron Ferrers of Chartley and Agnes or Aeneas de Bohun. Upon the death of his father in December 1380, he became Baron Boteler of Wem jure matris (he predeceased his mother, so never actually became the 5th baron). After his death, his mother’s 3rd husband assumed this title jure uxoris as well as 2nd Baron Ferrers of Wem. He had no son but two daughters. Female siblings being co-heiresses in England, both baronies are still abeyant between the descendants of these two sisters. Robert Ferrers married Joan Beaufort in 1391 at Beaufort-en-Vallée, Anjou. They had two daughters: Elizabeth (1393-1434), who married John de Greystoke, 4th Baron Greystoke (1389-1436). They had 12 children. One of their daughters, Anne, married Sir Ralph Bigod, descendant of Hugh Bigod (Justiciar) and his wife Joan de Stuteville (daughter of Dervorguilla I of Galloway, daughter of Lochlann of Galloway), and became ancestress of George Gascoigne, poet, and Zachary Taylor, 12th president of the United States.
 Mary (or Margery) (1394-1458) married her stepbrother, Sir Ralph Neville, son of Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmoreland, about 1413 in Oversley, Warwickshire.
 Joan was the mother of Sir William Gascoigne (c. 1450-1486) who married Margaret Percy and became ancestor of many notable persons including Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother, Diana, Princess of Wales, Catherine (Kate Middleton), Duchess of Cambridge, George Washington and William Howard Taft (1st and 27th President of the United States). In a study of the ancestry of Catherine, William Addams Reitwiesner uncovered that Kate Middleton shares ancestors with her husband Prince William (“The Ancestry of Catherine Middleton, now The Duchess of Cambridge, wife of Prince William, Duke of Cambridge”, published posthumously by the New England Historic Genealogical Society). The closest relationship is via Prince William’s mother and Catherine’s father through a common descent from Sir Thomas Fairfax (1475-1520) and his wife Agnes (or Anne) Gascoigne (1474-1504) (Joan’s granddaughter, not her daughter by the same name), daughter of Sir William Gascoigne and his wife, née Lady Margaret Percy. This makes William and Kate 15th cousins, as follows: William Arthur Philip Windsor (1982 – ) – Diana Frances Spencer, Princess of Wales (1961 – 1997) – Edward John Spencer, 8th Earl (1924 – 1992) – Albert Edward John Spencer (1892 – 1975) – Charles Robert Spencer (1857 – 1922) – Adelaide Horatia Elizabeth Seymour (1825 – 1877) – Horace Beauchamp Seymour (1791 – 1851) – Anne Horatia Waldegrave (1759 – 1801) – James Waldegrave 2nd Earl Waldegrave (1715 – 1763) – Mary Webbe (1696 – 1718) – Barbara Belasyse – John Belasyse 1st Baron Belasyse of Worlaby (1614 – 1689) – Thomas Belasyse 1st Viscount Fauconberge of Henknowle (1577 – 1652) – Henry Belasyse (1555 – 1624) – Margaret Fairfax – Nicholas Fairfax (1499 – 1571) – Agnes Gascoigne (1474 – 1504) – William Fairfax (1504 – 1557) – William Fairfax – John Fairfax – Benjamin Fairfax (1592 – 1675) – Benjamin Fairfax ( – 1708) – Sarah Fairfax (1654 – 1678) – Philip Meadows (1679 – 1752) – Sarah Meadows (1725 – 1800) – Thomas Martineau (1764 – 1826) – Elizabeth Martineau (1794 – 1850) – Frances Elizabeth Greenhow (1821 – 1892) – Francis Martineau Lupton (1848 – 1921) – Olive Christiana Lupton (1881 – 1936) – Peter Francis Middleton (1920 – 2010) – Michael Middleton (1949 – ) – Catherine (Kate) Middleton Duchess of Cambridge. Kate is my 17th cousin 2x removed. William is my 11th cousin 1x removed through William Gager (1592 – 1630).
 Major-General Robert Overton was prominent soldier and scholar, who supported the Parliamentary cause during the English Civil War, and was imprisoned a number of times during the Protectorate and the English Restoration for his strong republican views. As positions hardened during the period before the English Civil War, Robert Overton supported the Parliamentary cause. At the outbreak of the First English Civil War, he tried to join the army of Lord Ferdinando Fairfax, but no official positions were available. He was allowed to fight without any definite rank and distinguished himself in the defence of Hull and at the Battle of Marston Moor. In August 1645 the governor of Pontefract, Sir Thomas Fairfax, appointed Overton deputy governor of Pontefract. Shortly after this appointment Overton captured Sandal Castle. Overton was acting governor during the siege. In the summer of 1647 Overton gained a commission in the New Model Army and in July was given command of the late Colonel Herbert’s foot regiment. During the political debates within the New Model Army we was a member of the Army Council and sat on the committee at the Putney Debates. In March 1648, Fairfax appointed Overton deputy governor of Kingston upon Hull. There he became friends with the notable Puritan poet Andrew Marvell, but was a very unpopular with the townsfolk. The townsfolk were known to by sympathetic to the Royalist cause and in June 1648 the town Mayor and some of the town council petitioned for his removal. The sources differ as to his actions during Second English Civil War. Barbara Taft writes that he spent the war in Hull (Taft, Barbara, “Overton, Robert (1608/9–1678/9)”, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004). Nan Overton West writes that he fought with Oliver Cromwell in Wales and the North of England, that he took the Isle of Axolme and was with Cromwell when Charles I was taken to the Isle of Wight (Overton West, Nan, The Overtons: 700 Years. With Allied Families from England to Virginia, Kentucky, and Texas, Abilene, Texas: H.V. Chapman & Sons, 1997). He supported the trial of the King in late 1648 early 1649, but wrote that he only wanted him deposed and not executed. He disagreed with other points of policy of the early Commonwealth government publishing his position in a pamphlet titled “The declaration of the officers of the garrison of Hull in order to the peace and settlement of the kingdom” and accompanying letter to Thomas Fairfax. The letter makes it clear that he supported actions like Pride’s Purge if the “corrupt Commons” stopped the Army’s reforms. Barbara Taft writes that the last six pages of the decleration reflect the case made in the Remonstrance by the New Model Army to Parliament, the rejection of which had triggered Pride’s Purge: a speedy end to the present parliament; a succession of free biennial parliaments with an equitable distribution of seats; future kings elected by the people’s representatives and having no negative voice; a “universal and mutual Agreement, … enacted and decreed, in perpetuum”, that asserts that the power of parliament is “inferior only to that of the people”. As divisions within the New Model Army widened during the Summer of 1649, fearing that these divisions would be used by their enemies, Overton issued a letter that made it clear that he sided with the Rump Parliament and the Grandees against the Levellers. When the Third Civil War broke out in 1650 he accompanied Cromwell to Scotland and commanded a Foot Brigade at the Battle of Dunbar his regiment was also involved in the English Parliamentary victory at the Battle of Inverkeithing (20 Jul 1651), where Overton commanded the reserve. When then New Model Army returned to England in pursuit of the invading Royalist Scottish army, Overton remained in Scotland as governor of Edinburgh. He helped complete the subjugation of Scotland and commanded an expedition to reduce the garrison forces in Orkney. On 14 May 1652 a grateful Parliament voted Scottish lands to him with an annual income of £400 pounds sterling. In December 1652, when George Monck’s successor Richard Deane was recalled, Monck appointed Overton as Military Commander over all the English forces in the Western Highlands with the rank of Major-General. He was also appointed governor of Aberdeen. In 1653 he returned to England because of his father’s death and succeeded to the family estate in Easington. He also resumed duties as governor of Hull. During 1650 he and his wife had become members of the “church” and in retrospect he considered the execution of Charles I as a fulfilment of Old Testament scripture, and often cited Ezekiel 21:26-27, concerning the humble and God’s “overturning” established order. Overton wrote: “the Lord…is forced to shake and shake and overturn and overturn; this is a shaking, overturning dispensation.” Some sources claim he was a Fifth Monarchist, but his views seemed to have spanned several of the religious beliefs and political grouping of the day and it is difficult to label him as belonging to any one group. He hailed Cromwell’s dissolution of the Rump Parliament in June 1653, but he subsequently became disenchanted and suspicious of Cromwell as Lord Protector. Although his letters to Cromwell remained cordial, during the early years of the Protectorate he seems to have become more and more disenchanted with the Lord Protector and the speed of reform. Cromwell informed him that he could keep his position in the army so long as he promised to relinquish his command when he could no longer support the policies of the Protectorate. In September 1654 Overton returned to his command in Scotland. In December 1654, Overton was arrested and imprisoned in the Tower of London for his part in the “Overton Revolt”. He was accused of planning a military insurrection against the government and plotting to assassinate Monck. It is not clear how involved he was in the plot, because he was good friends with Monck at the time and would have been unlikely to have been involved in a plot to kill him. But whatever his real position he was considered to have been too lenient with his “disaffected officers” in sanctioning their meetings and there was evidence that he held meetings with John Wildman, an incorrigible Leveller plotter, who would use anyone in order to bring down the Protectorate. Later while in the Tower of London, wrote to others informing them of Wildman’s plans. In 1655 Cromwell was convinced enough of his guilt to have him removed as governor of Hull and to confiscate the lands granted to him by Parliament in Scotland handing them back to Earl of Leven the owner before they were confiscated by Parliament. Overton remained imprisoned in the Tower until in March 1658 when he was moved to Elizabeth Castle on the island of Jersey. Barbara Taft mentions that “It is not unlikely that respect for Overton’s ability and fear of his appeal as an opposition leader played a major role in his imprisonment.” After Cromwell’s death and the re-installation of the Commonwealth, Grizelle, his sister, his wife Anne, her brother, and many Republicans, presented his case to Parliament, on 3 Feb 1659, along with letters from Overton’s close friend John Milton. Overton and John Milton probably became acquainted early on in St Giles in Cripplegate, where they moved and lived for a time. Milton considered Overton a scholar and celebrated him and his exploits in his “Defensio Secundo” by writing: “…bound to me these many years past in friendship of more than brotherly closeness and affection, both by the similarity of our tastes and the sweetness of your manners.” Milton also included Overton in his list of “twelve apostles of revolutionary integrity.” On 16 Mar 1659, Parliament ordered Overton released from prison after hearing his case, pronouncing his imprisonment illegal. Overton’s return was called “his greatest political triumph; a huge crowd, bearing laurel branches, acclaimed him and diverted his coach from its planned path.” In June 1659 he was restored to his command and further compensated for his losses. Charles II wrote him promising him forgiveness for past disloyalty and rewarded him for services in effecting the restoration. Overton was appointed governor of Hull and again was unpopular, many referring to him as “Governor Overturn,” because of his association with the Fifth Monarchists who used the phrase liberally. This perception was reinforced by the sermons of John Canne, a well known Fifth Monarchist preacher in Overton’s regiment at Hull. On 12 Oct 1659, he was one of seven Commanders in whom Parliament vested the government of the army until January 1660. By early 1660, Overton’s position started to diverge from that of Monck, as he did not support the return of Charles II, but he and his officers refused to aid Generals Lambert and Fleetwood. He sought to mediate and published an exhortation to them to maintain the Lord’s cause, entitled “The Humble Healing Advice of R.O.” His ambiguity of conduct and letters to troops in Yorkshire caused Monck much embarrassment, and as a result, Monck had Lord Thomas Fairfax order him to take any order Monck gave. On 4 Mar 1660, a day after Lambert’s arrest, Monck ordered Overton to surrender his command to Fairfax and come to London. Overton planned a stand, but he must have seen that defeat would have been inevitable. Hull’s disaffection for him and some division among the garrison caused him to allow himself to be replaced by Thomas Fairfax’s son, Charles Fairfax. The Garrison in Hull began the English Civil War as the first town to resist Charles I and was among the last to accept his son Charles II. After 1642 no monarch would set foot in Hull for over 200 years. Overton was an independent and a republican. He was regarded, perhaps falsely, as one of the Fifth Monarchists, and at the first rumor of insurrection was arrested and sent to the Tower of London in December 1660, where Samuel Pepys went to see him and wrote in his diary that Overton had been found with a large quantity of arms, which Pepys recorded that Overton said he only bought to London to sell. Overton was briefly at liberty in the Autumn of 1661. Realising that he might be re-arrested at any moment he spent the time arranging his financial and personal affairs he issued a series of deeds to make provision for his mother, his wife and family and to avoid confiscation of his property by the Crown. Most of his properties were sold to his family, to his sons Ebenezer and Fairfax and his daughter Joanna, and close friends. The last documents were executed on 7 Nov 1661 and on 9 Nov 1661 he was sent to Chepstow Castle. He managed a short interval of freedom but was again arrested on 26 May 1663 on “suspicion of seditious practices and for refusing to sign the oaths or give security.” As Andrew Marvell, the English Satirist, wrote in a letter to John Milton, “Col. Overton [was] one of those steady Republicans whom Cromwell was unable to conciliate and was under the necessity of security.” In 1664 the government sent him to Jersey, the second time he had been imprisoned there and this time it was to be for seven years. During this time he was allowed out and about on the island which was not uncommon for high-ranking political prisoners. Overton spent the years of his incarceration in Mont Orgueil Castle on Jersey Island trying to establish his freedom. He wrote a 370 page manuscript of letters, meditations and poetry to his beloved wife’s memory and about religious subjects. He remained a prisoner on Jersey until early December 1671 when he was released to his brother-in-law by a warrant that was signed by Charles II. He returned to England and lived his last years with or near his daughters and probably two sons in Rutland. Overton’s will was dated 23 Jun 1678 and died died shortly thereafter. He was buried either in Seaton churchyard, overlooking the Welland Valley and Rockingham Castle or in New Church Yard, Moorfields in London (sources are not in agreement).
 Elizabeth of Rhuddlan (sometime anachronistically Elizabeth Plantagenet) was the eighth and youngest daughter of Edward I of England and Eleanor of Castile. Of all of her siblings, she was closest to her younger brother Edward II of England, as they were only two years apart in age. First marriage: In April 1285 there were negotiations with Floris V for Elizabeth’s betrothal to his son John I, Count of Holland. The offer was accepted and John was sent to England to be educated. On 8 Jan 1297 Elizabeth was married to John at Ipswich. On 10 Nov 1299, John died of dysentery, though there were rumours of his murder. No children had been born from the marriage. Second marriage: On 14 Nov 1302 Elizabeth was married to Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford, 3rd of Essex, also Constable of England, at Westminster Abbey. The children of Elizabeth and Humphrey are: Hugh (1303 – 1305); Eleanor (1304 – 1363), married James Butler, 1st Earl of Ormonde and Thomas Dagworth, 1st Baron Dagworth; Humphrey (born and died 1305), buried with Mary or Margaret); Mary or Margaret de Bohun (born and died 1305), burined with Humphrey; John, 5th Earl of Hereford (1306-1335); Humphrey, 6th Earl of Hereford (1309-1361); Margaret, 2nd Countess of Devon (1311-1391), married Hugh Courtenay, 2nd Earl of Devon; William, 1st Earl of Northampton (1312-1360), twin of Edward, married Elizabeth de Badlesmere; Edward, twin of William; Eneas (1314-after 1322), when he’s mentioned in his father’s will and Isabel (born and died 1316). Elizabeth died giving birth to isabel, and they were buried together in Waltham Abbey.
 Eleanor de Bohun, Countess of Ormond, was born in Knaresborough Castle to Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford and Elizabeth daughter of King Edward I of England and Eleanor of Castile. After the deaths of her parents, she was placed in the care of her aunt Mary Plantagenet and brought up at Amesbury Priory alongside various cousins including Joan Gaveston, Isabel of Lancaster and Joan de Monthermer. Edward II of England gave the priory a generous allowance of 100 marks annually for the upkeep of Eleanor and her younger cousin, Joan Gaveston. Eleanor was married twice; first in 1327 to James Butler, 1st Earl of Ormond, (son of Edmund Butler, Earl of Carrick and Lady Joan FitzGerald) who died in 1337 and secondly in 1343, to Thomas de Dagworth, Lord Dagworth who was killed in an ambush in Brittany in 1352. By her first marriage, Eleanor was an ancestress of Anne Boleyn and Catherine Parr, Queen consorts of King Henry VIII of England. Other descendants include the dukes of Beaufort, Newcastle, Norfolk, earls of Ormond, Desmond, Shrewsbury, Dorset, Rochester, Sandwich, Arundel, and Stafford. Children by James Butler: John (born 1330, died young); Petronilla, Baroness Talbot (died 1387) who married Gilbert Talbot, 3rd Baron Talbot and James, 2nd Earl of Ormond (1331-1382) who married Elizabeth Darcy. Children by Thomas Dagworth: Thomasine (1344-1409) married (1st) John De Dagworth and (2nd) William, 4th Baron Furnival and Nicholas (died 1401), who rebuilt Blickling Hall, later home of the Boleyn family.
 Petronilla married Gilbert Talbot, 3rd Baron Talbot (1332-1386)
 Sir Richard Talbot, 4th Lord Talbot, married Ankaret LeStrange, 7th Baroness Strange of Blackmere (1361-1413). In 1387, during his father’s lifetime, Richard 4th Baron was summoned to Parliament as Ricardo Talbot de Blackmere in right of his wife. His son Gilbert, the fifth Baron, also succeeded his mother as eighth Baron Strange of Blackmere.
 Thomas of Brotherton, 1st Earl of Norfolk, Lord Marshal of England (1300-1338) was the son of Edward I of England and Margaret of France. His father died when he was 7 years old. Thomas’s half-brother, Edward, became king of England. The Earldom of Cornwall had been intended for Thomas, but Edward instead bestowed it upon his favourite, Piers Gaveston, in 1306. When Thomas was 10 years old, Edward assigned to him and his brother Edmund, the estates of Roger Bigod who had died without heir in 1306. In 1312, he was titled “Earl of Norfolk” and on 10 Feb 1316 he was created Lord Marshal of England. While his brother was away fighting in Scotland, he was left Keeper of England. Thomas was known for having a hot and violent temper. He was one of the many victims of the unchecked greed of Hugh the younger Despenser, who stole some of the young earl’s lands. He allied himself with Queen Isabella and Roger Mortimer, Earl of March when they invaded England in 1326, and stood as one of the judges in the trials against both Despensers. When his nephew Edward III reached his majority and took the government into his own hands Thomas became one of his principal advisors. It was in the capacity of Lord Marshal that he commanded the right wing of the English army at the Battle of Halidon Hill on 19 Jul 1333. Thomas married first, probably in 1319, Alice Hayles, daughter of Sir Roger Hayles and Alice Skogan. She was supposed to have been a great beauty. Her father was the coroner of Norfolk, which in the 14th century was a fiscal, not a medical position. His post demanded that he collect and protect revenues for the king. Thomas and Alice had three children: Edward of Norfolk (c. 1320-1334), Margaret, Duchess of Norfolk (c. 1320-1399) and Alice of Norfolk (1324–1352). Thomas’ descent passed through Margaret to the Mowbray family and ultimately the Howard Dukes of Norfolk, from whom descended two of the wives of Henry VIII of England, Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard. Alice Hayles died in 1330, when a chantry was founded for her soul in Bosham, Sussex. Thomas was married again around 28 Mar 1335 to Mary Braose, widow of Ralph de Cobham, Lord Cobham.
 Margaret, Duchess of Norfolk, 2nd Countess of Norfolk (c. 1320 – 24 March 1399), also known as Lady Manny, was the daughter of Thomas of Brotherton, 1st Earl of Norfolk, by his first wife Alice Hayles. She succeeded to the Earldom in 1338, and became Lord Marshal. Her childless brother, Edward, had died in 1334. She married firstly in 1337 to Sir John de Segrave, 4th Baron Segrave by whom she had four children: Edmund, died in the cradle; Elizabeth (1338-1368), married John de Mowbray, 4th Baron Mowbray; John (1340-1349) and Anne, Abbess of Barking. In 1338, Margaret inherited the Earldom of Norfolk when her father died, becoming the 2nd Countess of Norfolk. Along with this title came the office of Lord Marshal. To date, she is the only woman to have served in this position (or, as it was to be called in the future, Earl Marshal).
 On 25 Mar 1349, Elizabeth married John de Mowbray, 4th Baron Mowbray (1340-1368), the son of John de Mowbray, 3rd Baron Mowbray and Joan of Lancaster, daughter of Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster. As was the custom of lords at the time, de Mowbray served in the French wars. The 4th Baron took the cross and died in Thrace near Constantinople, fighting the Turks in 1368. John and Elizabeth had at least two sons, and several daughters.
 Eleanor married John de Welles, 5th Baron Welles (1352–1421), an English soldier and noble. At a banquet in Edinburgh and presumably after too much alcohol, he issued, as Champion of England, the following challenge to David Lindsay (later 1st Earl of Crawford): “Let words have no place; if ye know not the Chivalry and Valiant deeds of Englishmen; appoint me a day and a place where ye list, and ye shall have experience.” As a result of the challenge, on St George’s Day, 23 Apr 1390, he fought David Lindsay in mock combat on horseback on London Bridge, losing the match by falling from his horse in their third charge against each other.
 Lionel de Welles, 6th Baron Welles, KG (1406-1461) was an English nobleman and soldier. He was killed fighting on the Lancastrian side at the Battle of Towton.
 Eleanor married Thomas Hoo, 1st Baron Hoo and Hastings KG (ca. 1396-1455), a Knight of the Garter and English courtier. Thomas was the son of Sir Thomas Hoo (c. 1370-1420) and wife (m. 1395) Eleanor de Felton (1378-1400). He succeeded his father in 1420, inheriting the family’s ancestral home of Luton Hoo in Bedfordshire as well as Mulbarton, Norfolk and other estates. He fought for Henry VI of England in France, and for his services was made, first Keeper of the Seals, then Chancellor of France. In 1439, he was granted the castle, lordship and honor of Hastings, and in 1445 elected Knight of the Garter. Two years later he was created Baron of Hoo and Hastings. Lord Hoo was twice married. His first wife was Elizabeth Wychingham, the daughter of Nicholas Wychingham of Witchingham, Norfolk, whom he married by settlement dated 1 July 1428. By her he had one daughter, Anne, who married Sir Geoffrey Boleyn, mercer and Lord Mayor of London. Lord Hoo married, secondly, before 1445, Eleanor Welles, daughter of Lionel de Welles, 6th Baron Welles, by whom he had three daughters, Anne (wife of Roger Copley, and secondly of William Greystoke), Eleanor (wife of James Carew of Beddington) and Elizabeth (wife of Thomas Masingbeard, and secondly Sir John Devenish). Lord Hoo died 13 Feb 1455. The barony of Hoo and Hastings become extinct at his death, and his properties passed to his four daughters and his half-brother, Sir Thomas Hoo, born 1416 to his father’s second wife, Elizabeth de Etchyngham. The brothers are interred together in the Dacre Tomb at Herstmonceux All Saints Church in Sussex.
 Anne married Roger Copley (1429-1490).
 Joan of Acre was an English princess, a daughter of King Edward I of England and Queen Eleanor of Castile. The name “Acre” derives from her birthplace in the Holy Land while her parents were on a crusade. She was married twice. Her first husband was Gilbert de Clare, Gilbert de Clare, 6th Earl of Hertford, 7th Earl of Gloucester (1243-1295), one of the most powerful nobles in her father’s kingdom. He was also known as “Red” Gilbert de Clare or “The red earl”, probably because of his hair colour or fiery temper in battle. In April 1264, Gilbert de Clare led the massacre of the Jews at Canterbury, as Simon de Montfort had done in Leicester. Gilbert de Clare’s castles of Kingston and Tonbridge were taken by the King, Henry III. However, the King allowed de Clare’s Countess Alice de Lusignan, who was in the latter, to go free because she was his niece. However, on 12 May de Clare and de Montfort were denounced as traitors. Two days later, just before the Battle of Lewes, on 14 May, Simon de Montfort knighted the Earl and his brother Thomas. The Earl commanded the central division of the Baronial army, which formed up on the Downs west of Lewes. When Prince Edward had left the field in pursuit of Montfort’s routed left wing, the King and Earl of Cornwall were thrown back to the town. Henry took refuge in the Priory of St Pancras, and Gilbert accepted the surrender of the Earl of Cornwall, who had hidden in a windmill. Montfort and the Earl were now supreme and de Montfort in effect de facto King of England. On 20 Oct 1264, Gilbert and his associates were excommunicated by Pope Clement IV, and his lands placed under an interdict. In the following month, by which time they had obtained possession of Gloucester and Bristol, the Earl was proclaimed to be a rebel. However at this point he changed sides as he fell out with de Montfort and the Earl, in order to prevent de Montfort’s escape, destroyed ships at the port of Bristol and the bridge over the River Severn at Gloucester. Having changed sides, de Clare shared the Prince’s victory at Kenilworth on 16 July, and in the Battle of Evesham, 4 August, in which de Montfort was slain, he commanded the second division and contributed largely to the victory. On 24 Jun 1268 he took the Cross at Northampton in repentance and contrition for his past misdeeds. Joan’s second husband was Ralph de Monthermer, a squire in her household whom she married in secret. Joan is most notable for the claim that miracles have allegedly taken place at her grave, and for the multiple references to her in literature.
 Eleanor de Clare (1292–1337) married Hugh Despenser the Younger, favorite of her uncle Edward II. Hugh Despenser, 1st Lord Despenser (c. 1286-1326), also referred to as “the younger Despenser”, was the son and heir of Hugh le Despenser, Earl of Winchester (the elder Despenser) and Isabella daughter of William, 9th Earl of Warwick. Hugh Despenser the younger became royal chamberlain in 1318. As a royal courtier, Despenser manoeuvred into the affections of King Edward, displacing the previous favorite, Roger d’Amory. This was much to the dismay of the baronage as they saw him both taking their rightful places at court and being a worse version of Gaveston. After many outrageous acts, the barons finally prevailed upon King Edward and forced Despenser and his father into exile in August 1321. Following the exile of the Despensers, the barons who opposed them fell out among themselves, and the King summoned the two men back to England. Early in the following year, King Edward took advantage of these divisions to secure the surrender of Marcher Lord Roger Mortimer, and the defeat and execution of the Earl of Lancaster, the Despensers’ chief opponents. The pair returned and King Edward quickly reinstated Despenser as royal favorite. His time in exile had done nothing to quell his greed, his rashness, or his ruthlessness. The time from the Despensers’ return from exile until the end of Edward II’s reign was a time of uncertainty in England. With the main baronial opposition leaderless and weak, having been defeated at the Battle of Boroughbridge, and Edward willing to let them do as they pleased, the Despensers were left unchecked. They grew rich from their administration and corruption. This period is sometimes referred to as the “Tyranny”. This maladministration caused hostile feeling for them and, by proxy, Edward II. Despenser repeatedly pressed King Edward to execute Mortimer, who had been held prisoner in the Tower of London, following his surrender. However, Mortimer escaped from the Tower and fled to France. Queen Isabella had a special dislike for Hugh Despenser the younger. While Isabella was in France to negotiate between her husband and the French king, she formed a liaison with Roger Mortimer and began planning an invasion. Despenser supposedly tried to bribe French courtiers to assassinate Isabella, sending barrels of silver as payment. Roger Mortimer and the Queen invaded England in October 1326. Their forces numbered only about 1,500 mercenaries to begin with, but the majority of the nobility rallied to them throughout October and November. By contrast, very few people were prepared to fight for Edward II, mainly because of the hatred that the Despensers had aroused. The Despensers fled West with the King, with a sizable sum from the treasury. The escape was unsuccessful. Separated from the elder Despenser, the King and the younger Despenser were deserted by most of their followers, and were captured near Neath in mid-November. King Edward was placed in captivity and later forced to abdicate in favour of his son. The elder Despenser (the father) was hanged at Bristol on 27 Oct 1326, and younger Despenser (the son) was brought to trial on 24 Nov 1326, in Hereford, before Mortimer and the Queen. He was judged a traitor and a thief, and sentenced to public execution by hanging, as a thief, and drawing and quartering, as a traitor. Additionally, he was sentenced to be disembowelled for having procured discord between the King and Queen, and to be beheaded, for returning to England after having been banished. Immediately after the trial, Despenser was dragged behind four horses to his place of execution, where a great fire was lit. He was stripped naked, and Biblical verses denouncing arrogance and evil were carved into his skin. He was then hanged from a gallows 50 feet high, but cut down before he could choke to death. In Froissart’s account of the execution, Despenser was then tied to a ladder, and – in full view of the crowd – had his genitals sliced off and burned (in his still-conscious sight) then his entrails slowly pulled out, and, finally, his heart cut out and thrown into the fire. Finally, his corpse was beheaded, his body cut into four pieces, and his head mounted on the gates of London. Mortimer and Isabella feasted with their chief supporters, as they watched the execution. Four years later, in December 1330, his widow was given permission to gather and bury his remains at the family’s Gloucestershire estate, but only the head, a thigh bone and a few vertebrae were returned to her.
 Isabelle married Richard FitzAlan, 3rd Earl of Arundel, in 1321. Richard’s father, Edmund FitzAlan, was the second member of the FitzAlan family to be definitely styled Earl of Arundel. He is therefore counted variously as the 2nd, 7th or 9th Earl, depending on whether the claims of the first seven to have been Earls by tenancy are accepted. Though he had stood against Edward II in the past, Edmund FitzAlan, 2nd Earl of Arundel had loyally supported him since the 1320s. Thus it must have seemed to be politically prudent to Edmund to marry his heir Richard to the eldest daughter of the King’s closest friend and adviser Hugh le Despenser. For Hugh’s part, a large incentive for him must have been that he could expect his daughter Isabel would one day become Countess of Arundel. On 9 Feb 1321 at the royal manor Havering-atte-Bower, Isabel was duly married to Richard FitzAlan, the heir to the earldom of Arundel. Isabel was only eight at the time, while Richard was only seven. Their respective ages would come up later when Richard would try to seek an annulment. Richard and Isabel had one son, Edmund Fitzalan, born in 1327, and in 1331 Isabel’s husband became earl of Arundel. However in December 1344 Richard Fitzalan had their marriage annulled on the grounds that he had never freely consented to marry Isabel and that they both had renounced their vows at puberty but had been “forced by blows to cohabit, so that a son was born”. Isabel retired to several manors in Essex that were given to her by her ex-husband. Richard quickly remarried Eleanor of Lancaster, with whom he had apparently been having an affair. By his first marriage to Isabel Despenser he had two children: Edmund Fitzalan, who was bastardized by the annulment, married Sybil, daughter of William Montacute, 1st Earl of Salisbury; Mary (Isabel) Fitzalan (died 29 Aug 1396), married John Le Strange, 4th Lord Strange of Blackmere. By the second marriage to Eleanor Plantagenet, he had 3 sons and 3 surviving daughters: Richard, who succeeded him as 11th Earl of Arundel, John, Thomas, Joan, Alice and Eleanor. When his father died in 1376 Edmund quarreled with his half-siblings, the children of his father’s second marriage, over inheritance rights. Edmund was imprisoned in the Tower of London until he was released in 1377 by request of his brothers-in-law. After their father was executed for treason in 1326, Isabel and her youngest sister Elizabeth were the only daughters of Hugh the Younger to escape being confined in nunneries, Isabel because she was already married and Elizabeth because of her youth. Richard’s father, Edmund Fitzalan, was executed by Isabella, and Richard did not succeed to his father’s estates or titles.
 The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom Extant, Extinct, or Dormant (CP) by George Edward Cokayne lists Mary as a daughter of Richard FitzAlan and his first wife, Isabel Despenser (CP, vol 1, p. 244). CP Corrections, Volume 14, p.596 retains the identification of John Strange’s wife Mary as a daughter of Richard, the 10th Earl, but mentions an alternative possibility that Mary was instead the daughter of Edmund FitzAlan, the 9th Earl (therefore Richard’s sister). It adds that if this were so, Mary would have been aged about 40 when her son John was born. Mary (Isabel) married John Le Strange, 4th Baron Strange of Blackmere.
 The title Baron Strange of Blackmere was created once in the Peerage of England. On 13 Jan 1309 Fulk le Strange was summoned to parliament. On the death of the fifth baron in 1375, it was inherited by Elizabeth Mowbray, née le Strange. And on her death in 1383, it was inherited by Ankaret Talbot, née le Strange. And on her son’s death in 1419, the barony was inherited by Ankaret Talbot, his daughter. On her death in 1421, the barony was inherited by her uncle, John Talbot who was created Earl of Shrewsbury, Earl of Waterford and Hereditary Lord High Steward of Ireland. On the death of the 7th earl respectively in 1616, the barony fell into abeyance.
 Eleanor Coply married Thomas West, 8th Baron De La Warr and 5th Baron West (c. 1457-11 Oct 1525). Thomas was the oldest son of Richard West, 7th Baron De La Warr and 4th Baron of West and Catherine Hungerford. Thomas succeeded to his titles at the age of 19. He had an active military career under both Henry VII and Henry VIII, and was multiply honored as a result: 1478 (in the reign of Henry VII) – Knight of the Bath, 1497 – He commanded a retinue in the Battle of Deptford Bridge; 1510 (in the reign of Henry VIII) – Knight of the Garter; 1513 – He commanded a retinue in the Battle of the Spurs; 1520 – He was part of Henry VIII’s retinue at the Field of the Cloth of Gold; 1524 – He was appointed High Sheriff of Surrey and Sussex. Thomas was married three times and fathered eighteen children, including his heir, Thomas, and Sir Owen West, among whose heirs the Barony of West remains abeyant to this day. His wives were: (1st) Eleanor Percy (b. 1455), daughter of Henry Percy, 3rd Earl of Northumberland and Lady Eleanor Poynings. This marriage was to remain childless; (2nd) Elizabeth Mortimer (d. 1502), daughter of Lord Hugh Mortimer of Mortimer’s Hall, Southampton County and Eleanor Cornwall. They had five sons and six daughters, including his eldest son, Thomas West, 9th Baron De La Warr and 6th Baron West (1479-1554), who married Elizabeth Bonville and (3rd) Eleanor Copley (b.1476), daughter of Sir Roger Copley of Sussex and Anne Hoo. They had three sons and four daughters. Thomas is buried in Broadwater Church, in Broadwater (now a suburb of Worthing), Sussex, England.
 Sir George West (1510-1538), married Elizabeth Morton.
 William West, 1st Baron De La Warr (of the second creation)was the nephew and adopted heir of Thomas West, 9th Baron De La Warr. William West was the eldest son of Sir George West, the third of four brothers, and of Elizabeth Morton, daughter of Sir George Morton of Lechlade. On 1 Feb 1550, he was attainted of attempting to poison his uncle. In English criminal law, attainder or attinctura is the metaphorical “stain” or “corruption of blood” which arises from being condemned for a serious capital crime (felony or treason). It entails losing not only one’s property and hereditary titles, but typically also the right to pass them on to one’s heirs, and this was the result in William’s case. His uncle died four years later, so far as we know of natural causes. William West was convicted of treason in 1556 for assisting the plot of George Dudley against Mary I of England. He argued that he was a peer and should be tried in the House of Lords, but was refused. He was nevertheless a captain in the siege of St. Quentin in 1557. In 1563, he was restored in blood (i.e. to his rights of inheritance by descent). He was knighted and created Baron Delaware on 5 Feb 1570. He took part as a peer in the trials and convictions of Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk and later, his son, Philip Howard, 20th Earl of Arundel. He was junior peer in his lifetime, as latest created. However, his son and descendants have been seated with the precedence of 1299, as though they had inherited his uncle Thomas’s title. By the modern rules of the House of Lords, his uncle’s title fell into abeyance between the daughters of William West’s second uncle, Sir Owen West, or their heirs. However, as Cokayne notes, such rules are at best modern approximations to actual medieval practice. What seems clear is that some, but not all, writers treat the letters patent as clarifying the descent of the ancient title, rather than creating a new one, hence William is sometimes referred to as 10th baron. He married Elizabeth Strange and was the father of one son, Thomas West, 2nd Baron De La Warr, and three daughters, Jane West, Elizabeth West, and Mary West. He was succeeded as Baron De La Warr by his son Thomas.
 Thomas West, 2nd and 11th Baron De La Warr of Wherwell Abbey in the English county of Hampshire was a member of Elizabeth I’s Privy Council and High Sheriff of Hampshire. Thomas was the only son of William West, 1st Baron De La Warr and Lady Elizabeth Strange. He succeeded his father, who had been created Baron De La Warr in 1597 by letters patent. In 1597 he petitioned the House of Lords to have the precedence of the original barony, 1299, on the basis that he actually held the ancient peerage. After his claim was admitted, he sometimes referred to himself as 11th Baron. On 19 Nov 1571 at Wherwell in Hampshire, he was married to Anne Knollys, daughter of Sir Francis Knollys and Catherine Carey, with whom he had thirteen children, including Elizabeth (1573-1633), Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr (1577-1618), who married Lady Cicely Shirley, Francis West, Governor of Virginia (1586-1634) and John West, Governor of Virginia (1590-1659).
 Elizabeth West married (1st) in Wherwell, Hampshire, on 12 Feb 1593 Sir Herbert Pelham, Esq. and Knt., of Michelham (Bucksteep, Sussex, 1546 – Fordington, Dorset, 12 Apr 1620), already a widower with issue of Catherine Thatcher (about 1550 – 1593), whom he married in Westham, Sussex about 1565. Elizabeth and Herbert are (ancestors of John Davison Rockefeller Sr., b 1839 –his 7th g-grandparents). Elizabeth married (2nd) Sir Richard Saltonstall (1586-1661). Saltonstall led a group of English settlers up the Charles River to settle in what is now Watertown, Massachusetts in 1630. He was a nephew of the Lord Mayor of London Richard Saltonstall (1517–1600) and was amitted pensioner at Clare College, Cambridge in 1603. Before leaving England for North America, he served as aJustice of the Peace for the West Riding of Yorkshire and was Lord of the Manor of Ledsham. He was one of the grantees of the Massachusetts Company and left England on 26 Aug 1629 aboard the Arbella. He was named First Assistant to Governor John Winthrop. Saltonstall arrived in Massachusetts with his wife, Elizabeth, and his children, Richard, Jr., Samuel, Robert, Henry, Grace, Rosamund, John and Anne. The illness of one of his daughters caused him to return to England in 1631, along with his wife, daughters, and two of his sons. He maintained an interest in the colonies and was one of the patentees of the Connecticut Colony. In 1644, he was appointed ambassador to Holland, where his portrait was painted by Rembrandt. Saltonstall’s first wife was Grace Kaye. They had four children: sons Richard, Robert, and Samuel, and a daughter, Grace. After his wife died in 1625, Saltonstall married Lady Elizabeth West, by whom he had two additional children, Anne and John. Although Saltonstall only remained in Massachusetts for a brief time, his descendents played a major role in New England history. There are several monuments dedicated to Saltonstall in Watertown. These include Saltonstall Park on Main Street, Watertown and the Saltonstall Founders Memorial near the Charles River. There is a small granite monument commemorating their settlement close to the Mt. Auburn Bridge in Cambridge.
 Elizabeth Pelham died in England, but her husband, John Humphrey (1596-1661) subsequently arrived in Virginia in 1634 or 1635 with at least two daughters. John apparently returned to England in 1641, leaving his daughters behind in Virginia in the care of others.
 Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence, jure uxoris 4th Earl of Ulster and 5th Baron of Connaught, KG was the third son, but the second son to survive infancy, of Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. He was so called because he was born at Antwerp. He was betrothed when a child to Elizabeth de Burgh, 4th Countess of Ulster (d. 1363), daughter and heiress of William Donn de Burgh, 3rd Earl of Ulster (d. 1332), and they married in 1352, but before this date he had entered into possession of her great Irish inheritance. He was called Earl of Ulster from 1347. Having been named as his father’s representative in England in 1345 and again in 1346, Lionel joined an expedition into France in 1355, but his chief energies were reserved for the affairs of Ireland. Appointed governor of that country, he landed at Dublin in 1361, and in November of the following year was created Duke of Clarence, the second Dukedom created in England, while his father made an abortive attempt to secure for him the crown of Scotland. His efforts to secure an effective authority over his Irish lands were only moderately successful. After holding a parliament at Kilkenny, which passed the celebrated Statute of Kilkenny in 1366, he dropped the task in disgust and returned to England. The poet Geoffrey Chaucer was at one time a page in Lionel’s household. Lionel’s wife died in Dublin in 1363, leaving behind a daughter, Philippa, whose descendants would one day claim the throne for the House of York. A second marriage was arranged for Lionel with Violante (c. 1353-1386), daughter of Galeazzo Visconti, lord of Pavia (d. 1378). The enormous dowry which Galeazzo promised with his daughter being exaggerated by the rumor of the time. Journeying to fetch his bride, Lionel was received in great state both in France and Italy, and was married to Violante at Milan on 28 May 1368. Some months were then spent in festivities, during which Lionel was taken ill at Alba, where he died. There was strong speculation at the time that he had been poisoned by his father-in-law although this has never been proven. Lionel’s only child, Philippa, married in 1368 Edmund Mortimer, 3rd Earl of March (1351–1381). Their granddaughter and eventual heir, Anne Mortimer, married into the Yorkist branch of the English Royal family. The House of York based its claim to the throne on this line of descent.
 Philippa was born in Eltham Palace, Kent, England. She was the daughter and only child of Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence and Elizabeth de Burgh, 4th Countess of Ulster. Her father was the second son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. Philippa married Edmund Mortimer, 3rd Earl of March in about 1368 at Reading Abbey, forging an alliance that would have far-reaching consequences in English history. During her own lifetime, Philippa was the heiress presumptive to her first cousin Richard II, and would be displaced in the succession by any children of the king. After her death in 1382, her rights passed on to her son, Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March. When Richard resigned his crown without issue on 29 Sep 1399, the rightful heir was Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March, whose father Roger had died the previous year. However, the throne was usurped by Richard and Philippa’s first cousin, Henry Bolingbroke, an event that later precipitated the Wars of the Roses. As a result of her seniority in the line of succession to the throne of the Kingdom of England and her marriage into the powerful Mortimer family, her descendants eventually succeeded to the throne as the House of York under Edward IV. She died, most likely of a fever, on 5 Jan 1382 in Cork, Ireland, and was buried in Wigmore, Herefordshire.
 Elizabeth Mortimer, Baroness Camoys was an English noblewoman, who, as the granddaughter of Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence, was in the line of succession to the English throne. Her first husband was Sir Henry Percy, known to history as “Hotspur”. She married secondly Thomas de Camoys, 1st Baron Camoys. Her mother Philippa was the only child of Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence, and Elizabeth de Burgh, Countess of Ulster. Lionel was the second eldest son of King Edward III of England, therefore Lady Elizabeth, through her mother, was in the second senior line of succession to the English throne. Her younger brother, Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March was in point of fact, King Richard II’s heir presumptive. Besides Roger, she had two other brothers, Sir Edmund Mortimer and John. She had also one younger sister, Philippa, who married firstly John Hastings, 3rd Earl of Pembroke, secondly, Sir Thomas Poynings, and thirdly as his second wife, Richard Fitzalan, 11th Earl of Arundel. On an unknown date, sometime before 10 Dec 1379, when she was still a child, she married her first husband, Henry Percy, eldest son of Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland. He was about five or seven years her senior and would later acquire the reputation as a great soldier and warrior, known to history by the nickname of “Hotspur”. Together the couple resided at Alnwick Castle in Northumberland, and they had three children: Henry, Elizabeth and Matilda (died young). On 21 Jul 1403, her husband was killed in the Battle of Shrewsbury, while commanding the rebel army which fought against the royalist forces of King Henry IV. He was buried in Whitchurch, Shropshire. However, when rumors circulated throughout the kingdom that he was still alive, King Henry ordered that his body be exhumed. This done, the King dispatched Percy’s head to York where it was impaled on the city’s gate. His four quarters were first sent to London, Newcastle upon Tyne, Bristol and Chester before they were finally delivered to Elizabeth. She had him buried in York Minster in November of that same year. In January 1404, her husband was posthumously declared a traitor and his lands were forfeited to the Crown. Sometime after 1403, she married her second husband Thomas de Camoys, 1st Baron Camoys, by whom she had two additional children: Roger Camoys and Alice Camoys. Upon her marriage to Camoys, Elizabeth was styled Baroness Camoys. Like her first husband, Baron Camoys was a renowned soldier who commanded the left wing of the English Army at the Battle of Agincourt on 25 Oct 1415. Elizabeth died on 20 Apr 1417. She was buried in St. George’s Church at Trotton, Sussex. Her second husband was buried beside her, and their table-tomb, with its fine monumental brass depicting the couple holding hands, can be viewed in the middle of the chancel inside the church. Through her eldest daughter, Elizabeth, Queen consort Jane Seymour was among her many descendants. Elizabeth is represented as Kate, Lady Percy in William Shakespeare’s play Henry IV, Part 1 and briefly again as Widow Percy in Henry IV, Part 2.
 Henry Percy, 2nd Earl of Northumberland, was an English nobleman and military commander in the lead up to the Wars of the Roses. He was the son of Henry “Hotspur” Percy, and the grandson of Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland. Father and grandfather were killed in different rebellions against Henry IV in 1403 and 1405 respectively, and the young Henry spent his minority in exile in Scotland. Only after the death of Henry IV in 1413 was he reconciled with the Crown, and in 1416 he was created Earl of Northumberland. In the following years, Northumberland occasionally served with the king in France, but his main occupation was the protection of the border to Scotland. At the same time, a feud with the Neville family was developing, particularly with Richard Neville, Earl of Salisbury. This feud became entangled with the conflict between the Duke of York and the Duke of Somerset over control of national government. The conflict culminated in the first battle of the Wars of the Roses, at St Albans, where both Somerset and Northumberland were killed. Children of Henry Percy and Eleanor Neville: John (1418- ); Henry Percy, 3rd Earl of Northumberland (1421-1461), killed at the Battle of Towton; Thomas Percy, 1st Baron Egremont (1422-1460), killed at the Battle of Northampton; Katherine (1423-after 1475), married Edmund Grey, 1st Earl of Kent; George (1424-1474); Ralph (1425-1464), killed at the Battle of Hedgeley Moor; Richard (1427-1461), killed at the Battle of Towton; William (1428-1462), Bishop of Carlisle; Anne Percy (1436-1522); and Joan.
 Henry Percy, 4th Earl of Northumberland, was the only one of the Percy family to appear to take the side of the House of York during the Wars of the Roses. His father was loyal to the House of Lancaster. He was killed in the Battle of Towton on 29 March 1461. The earldom of Northumberland was forfeited by the victorious Yorkists. The adolescent Percy was imprisoned in the Fleet Prison and later transported to the Tower of London in 1464. In 1465, John Neville was named Earl of Northumberland in his place. Percy eventually swore fealty to Edward IV and was released in 1469. He petitioned for the return of his paternal titles and estates to him, gaining the support of Edward IV himself. John Neville had to quit his title and was instead named Marquess of Montagu in 1470. However the restoration of the title to Percy was delayed by the Parliament of England until 1473. He was made a Knight of the Garter in 1474. For the following twelve years, Percy held many of the important government posts in northern England , such as warden of the east and middle marches, which were traditional in his family. He commanded the Yorkist reserve at the Battle of Bosworth Field on 22 Aug 1485. Percy never committed his forces to the battle. His inactivity played an important part in the defeat and death of Richard III. Historians suspect him of treason in favor of victor Henry VII of England, although there is an alternative theory that his forces, placed behind those of King Richard, were in no position to take part in the battle before Richard was killed. If the first theory is true, then Henry himself was either unaware or not appreciative of his treasonous intentions. Percy was arrested along with Ralph Neville, 3rd Earl of Westmorland and Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk. He was imprisoned for several months but swore allegiance to the new King. Henry VII released him on terms of good behavior. Percy was allowed to retain his titles and lands as well as returning to his old posts. In April 1489, Percy held temporary residence in his estates of Yorkshire. Henry VII had recently allied himself to Anne of Brittany against Charles VIII of France. Taxes rose to finance the military action. Sir John Egremont of Yorkshire led a riot in protest at the high taxation, known as the Yorkshire rebellion. Percy was targeted by the rioters as he approached the city and lynched on 28 Apr 1489. He was buried at Beverley Minster. Henry was married to Maud Herbert, Countess of Northumberland after 1473 but before 1476. She was daughter to William Herbert, 1st Earl of Pembroke (1423-1469) and his wife Anne Devereaux.
 Henry Algernon Percy, 5th Earl of Northumberland, was an English noble who was a member of the courts of both Henry VII and Henry VIII. Henry Algernon Percy was well looked after and brought up at the court of Henry VII, while his sisters’ marriages were the object of careful negotiation. He was made Knight of the Bath on 21 Nov 1489, at the time when Prince Arthur (the first son of King Henry VII of England and Elizabeth of York) was created Prince of Wales. On 28 Apr 1489 Henry Algernon Percy succeeded his father, Henry Percy, 4th Earl of Northumberland, as 5th Earl of Northumberland. Northumberland attended Henry VII at the conclusion of the treaty of Etaples in 1492 and took a prominent part in the elaborate ceremony of 1494, when Prince Henry was created Knight of theBath. In 1495 he was made a Knight of the Garter. In 1497 he served in the royal army against the Cornish rebels and fought at the battle of Blackheath. On 14 May 1498 he received livery of his lands and entered into the management of his various castles and estates. How important Northumberland’s position was can be seen from The Northumberland Household Book, which was edited from the manuscript in possession of the Duke of Northumberland by Thomas Percy in 1770. It was begun in 1512. His income was about £2,300. a year, which probably does not include all that he received by way of gift. But on his various retinues of servants he spent no less than £1,500. a year, and as the margin had to meet all such expenses as his journeys to the court, and as he was extraordinarily magnificent in taste, he was soon in debt. In 1501 he was appointed constable of Knaresborough, steward of the Lordship of Knaresborough and master forester in the forest there. On 1 Apr 1502 he was a commissioner of oyer and terminer for London. He was also constantly in the commission of the peace for various counties. Northumberland received the important appointment of warden of the east marches towards Scotland on 30 Jun 1503, and one of his first duties was to escort Margaret to Scotland on her way to join James IV of Scotland, and his splendid dress and numerous servants pleased the princess. Northumberland seems to have irritated Henry VII just before the king died. He had disposed of the wardship and marriage of Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of Sir John Hastings. He was fined £10,000, an amount of money quite as difficult to raise, and it is extraordinary that he managed to pay half the money before Henry VIII came to the throne. The new king cancelled the remainder of the debt on 21 Mar 1510. On 4 Feb 1512 he was a trier of petitions from Gascony and beyond the sea. Northumberland served in the war of 1513 as a grand captain, with a very large retinue. From Calais he went to the siege of Thérouanne and in the battle of the Spurs he commanded the “showrers and forridors”, Northumberland men on light geldings. The next year he was a chief commissioner of array for various counties. As Thomas Wolsey rose, the great nobles had one by one to submit to his tyranny. Northumberland, on the advice of Will Hatty, was suspected of being too friendly with Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke of Buckingham, and so, on a charge of interfering with the king’s prerogative about the wards, he was cast into the Fleet Prison in 1516. Possibly he was only put there so that Wolsey might have the credit of getting him out. He was examined in the Court of the Star Chamber, and soon set free. Northumberland was friendly with George Talbot, 4th Earl of Shrewsbury, and they arranged to go on a pilgrimage this year together. Shrewsbury had been anxious to marry his daughter to a son of Buckingham, but, having disputed about money matters, the parents broke off the match. It was now arranged, most unfortunately as it turned out, that the lady should marry Northumberland’s son, the Lord Percy, in June 1517. Northumberland met Queen Margaret of Scotland at York to conduct her on her way home. He undertook the duty with reluctance, doubtless from want of money, and his wife was excused attendance. In 1518 he was one of those who held lands in Calais. Wolsey in 1519, in a letter to the king, expressed suspicions of his loyalty, but he escaped the fate of the Duke of Buckingham and went to the Field of the Cloth of Gold, where he was a judge of the lists. The same year, 1517, Northumberland had a grant of the honor of Holderness. He was present at Henry’s meeting with the emperor in May 1522, and attested the ratification of the treaty made. He seems to have been offered, but not to have accepted, the wardenship of all the marches towards Scotland in 1523, and is said to have incurred the contempt of his tenants by his refusal. But he continued active while Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey was in chief command. In 1523 he made an inroad into Scotland, and was falsely accused by Dacre of going to war with the crosskeys of York, a royal badge, on his banner. He cleared himself easily enough. In 1524 he was again on the border. In 1525 he had some trouble with the council of the north, of which he had been a member since 1522, but he cleared himself and took part in the ceremony of the creation of Henry Fitzroy, Henry VIII’s natural son, Earl of Nottingham. He died at Wressell on 19 May 1527, and was buried at Beverley, where he had built a splendid shrine. Northumberland was magnificent in his tastes, and being one of the richest magnates of his day, kept a very large establishment, and was fond of building. Leland praised the devices for the library at Wressell, presumably arranged by him. He encouraged the poet John Skelton, who wrote the elegy on his father. A manuscript formerly in his possession forms British Museum Reg. Bib. 18 D ii. It consists of poems, chiefly by Lydgate.
 Sir Thomas Percy (c. 1504–2 June 1537) was a participant in the 1537 Bigod’s Rebellion in the aftermath of the Pilgrimage of Grace, a Roman Catholic uprising against Henry VIII of England. He was convicted of treason and hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn.
 Mary Percy married Francis Slingsby, born 1522 in Petworth, Sussex, England and died 1600 in Scriven, Knaresborough, West Riding, England.
 Sir Henry Slingsby (1560-1634) was an English landowner and politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1601-24. Slingsby was the son of Francis Slingsby and his second wife. He held a number of offices including feodary for the Duchy of Lancaster and feodary of Tickhill. He was receiver of Pontefract castle, and was receiver surveyor and collector of Knaresborough and Wakefield in 1588. He was janitor and deputy keeper of Knaresborough Castle and bailiff and coroner within the liberty of Knaresborough. He was chief forester of Knaresborough and Wharfdale and was custodian of Bilton park in about 1600. He succeeded to the estates of his father in 1600. In 1601, Slingsby was elected Member of Parliament for Knaresborough. He was also Justice of the Peace for the West Riding of Yorkshire in 1601. He was knighted in 1602. From 1603 he was a member of the council in the north. In 1604, he was re-elected MP for Knaresborough. He was Sheriff of Yorkshire from 1611-12. In 1614 he was elected MP for Knaresborough again and was re-elected in 1621 and 1624. Slingsby died at Nun Monckton, Yorkshire, at the age of about 74 and was buried on the 28 Dec 1634 in the family chapel in Knaresborough church. Slingsby married Frances Vavasour, daughter of William Vavasour of Weston. His wife died on 24 Jul 1611.
 Eleanor Slingby married Sir Arthur Ingram, an English investor, landowner and politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1624-42. Responsible for the construction, purchase and sale of many manor houses and estates in Yorkshire, the Ingram family are most associated with Temple Newsam which became the seat of this wealthy family for over 300 years. Ingram was born at Thorpe-on-the-Hill (near Leeds). The second son of Hugh Ingram of Rothwell and Ann Goldthorpe of York, he came from a poor working-class background to become the most extensive landowner in Yorkshire and one of the richest men in the country at the time. He became a linen draper in London and married Anne, the daughter of a wealthy haberdasher, Richard Goldthorpe, formerly Lord Mayor of York and the MP for the city. He was an influential man and obtained the Controllership of the Customs for the port of London from 1601. He worked extensively as an investment consultant and trade advisor and later moved into real estate. He was responsible for the sale of Castleford Mills in 1607 and Castleford Manor in 1610. In 1612, Ingram was appointed as Secretary of the Council of the North and was knighted by James I in 1613. In 1615 he became Cofferer of the Household. However, he was soon blackballed from court because of his working-class background and shrewd business practices. He moved back to Yorkshire and became highly active in real estate development. Temple Newsam House: In 1619 he built a new mansion on the site of the former Archbishop’s Palace in York. In 1621 he acquired from the Crown the ruinous Sheriff Hutton Castle in the Forest of Galtres, north of York. He employed its cut stone in building Sheriff Hutton Park nearby. In 1622 he purchased the manor house at Temple Newsam and estate from the Duke of Lennox (who had been granted it by King James I) for £12,000. Temple Newsam is a Tudor-Jacobean house with grounds landscaped by Capability Brown and lies to the east of Leeds, just south of Halton Moor, Halton, Whitkirk and Colton. As Ingram became more prosperous, his power and ties increased. Ingram served as High Sheriff of Yorkshire in 1620 and became the Member of Parliament (MP) for York in 1624 and served four terms until 1629 when King Charles I dispensed with parliament. In 1636, Ingram purchased the Manor of Knottingley for £4,000, and in 1637 he bought Knottingley Mills from Francis Tyndall[, as well as the manor of Bentley from York barrister John Levett for £4,000. Sometime in late 1638 or early 1639 he is documented as having paid the painter George Geldorp to paint his portrait. In the late 1630s he also built Ingram House in Bootham. In April 1640, Ingram was elected MP for Windsor for the Short Parliament and in November 1640, he became the MP for Callington for the Long Parliament. He erected a new manor house at Hill Top, Knottingley shortly before his death in August 1642. Ingram was survived by three sons; the oldest, William, studied at Cambridge University and became a divine. His flamboyant grandson Henry joined the court in exile of Charles II and was rewarded with the title of Viscount of Irvine after the Restoration.
 Margaret de Quincy (born 1218) was the second wife of William de Ferrers, 5th Earl of Derby (1193-1254). She was also the daughter of Roger de Quincy, 2nd Earl of Winchester and Helen of Galloway. William’s daughter Eleanor by his first wife married Roger as histhird wife. Bizarrely, this means Margaret was both the stepmother and stepdaughter of William’s daughter, Eleanor.
 Robert III de Ferrers, 6th Earl of Derby was an English nobleman. He was born at Tutbury Castle in Staffordshire, England, the son of William de Ferrers, 5th Earl of Derby and the Earl’s 2nd wife Margaret de Quincy (born 1218), daughter of Roger de Quincy, 2nd Earl of Winchester and Helen of Galloway. In 1249, at the age of 10, he married the seven-year-old Mary (or Marie), daughter of Hugh XI of Lusignan Count of La Marche, the eldest of Henry III’s half-brothers, at Westminster Abbey. This arranged marriage is an indication of Henry’s high regard for Robert’s father. William died in 1254, so that Robert became a knight and inherited the title while he was still a minor. He and his estates became a ward of Prince Edward. In 1257, Edward sold the wardship to the queen and Peter of Savoy for 6000 marks, which might have been a source of Ferrers’ later antipathy for the prince. Robert came of age in 1260 and took possession of the vast estates he inherited. The first of these passed to him from his Norman ancestors, a large part of Derbyshire that included the area later known as Duffield Frith, together with parts of Staffordshire and Nottinghamshire. In addition, he received Chartley Castle in Staffordshire, and all Lancashire between the Ribble and the Mersey. This came from the estate of Ranulph de Blondeville, 4th Earl of Chester, whose sister, Robert’s grandfather had married. By careful management, the estate had become worth around £1500, which meant that the Ferrers family was among the wealthiest in the country. However the estate was crippled by charges arising from William’s death. Firstly a third of its worth was accounted for by his mother’s dower, which included the major asset of Chartley. Nearly half was supporting a debt of around £800 incurred by his father, which the exchequer was calling in. To pay this he had taken a further loan, possibly from Jewish financiers in Worcester. Finally there was provision for his brother William and his wife Mary, who held two manors herself. It would seem that before taking his inheritance his only income had been the maritagium bestowed by King Henry. Unlike his predecessors, Robert was impetuous and violent, in part, perhaps, because he had inherited a severe form of gout from his grandfather. He was also unreliable and lacking in political sophistication. Almost as soon as he took control of his estate, he attacked the priory of Tutbury, which his family were patrons of. In the early years, Robert had taken little interest in politics, perhaps because of his preoccupation with the estate. Nevertheless he was acquainted with the reforms that were being pursued, and with Richard de Clare, Earl of Gloucester, and Simon de Montfort, friends of the family. When de Montfort returned to England in 1263 to begin a rebellion against the king that became known as the Second Barons’ War, Robert had to take sides, and moved towards de Montfort. He is on record during May and June as taking the ‘Three Castles’ – Grosmont, Skenfrith, and Whitecastle in South Wales, which belonged to Prince Edward. When in January 1264, Louis IX of France declared the Provisions of Oxford unlawful and invalid, further unrest followed. Robert first attacked Worcester in February 1264, sacking the Jewish quarter, plundering the religious and private houses, and damaging the fences and lands of the Royal parks in the neighborhood. He carried away the bonds recording his loans, effectively ameliorating his debt problem. He then went on to join Simon de Montfort’s forces at Gloucester Castle, recently taken by Edward. To Robert’s extreme annoyance, Edward escaped, having made a truce with Henry de Montfort, Simon’s son. It would seem that de Ferrers’ motives were less about support for reform, than they were about hatred of Edward. The origins of this may well have been in the Ferrers family’s long held claims on the estate of Peverel Castle through the marriage of Margaret Peverel to Robert the second earl. King John had assigned stewardship of the estate to the fourth earl, Robert’s grandfather, but King Henry had taken it back and awarded it to Prince Edward in 1222. Finally there was Edward’s custodianship during Robert’s minority and the fact that some land had not been relinquished. Be that as it may, Robert of Gloucester observed that “Of no one was Edward more afraid.” Edward’s brief escape, however, allowed him, to attack Northampton Castle where de Ferrers brother William, Anker de Frescheville, Lord of Crich and Baldwin Wake, Lord of Chesterfield were taken prisoner in March 1264. Edward went on to attack de Ferrers at Chartley Castle, and later to destroy Tutbury Castle. This was followed by the Battle of Lewes in May. That Robert did not join de Montfort there would support the idea that his activities were largely motivated by self-interest. Prince Edward and the king having finally been captured gave de Ferrers his opportunity, gaining the royal castles of Bolsover, Horston, and Tickhill Castle, Yorkshire. By the end of 1264, he had also taken Peverel and, it is believed, Chester Castles. De Montfort’s Parliament broadened elected representation beyond the nobility to freeholder groups . Some of the Barons felt that he had gone too far and he began to lose support. Meanwhile Edward continued under house arrest, and de Montfort was working out an agreement for his release that included surrender of large portions of his lands. That these were lands that de Ferrers had appropriated made de Montfort a new and dangerous adversary. He summoned de Ferrers to the session of Parliament for January 1265, ordered him to surrender Peverel Castle, and accused him of “diverse trespasses”, after which he had him arrested and sent to the Tower of London. Meanwhile de Montfort was steadily losing support and, in May, the Earl of Gloucester deserted to the side of the King. With his assistance, and that of Roger de Mortimer, Edward escaped from Kenilworth Castle. When he defeated de Montfort at the Battle of Evesham in August 1265, the rebels were shown little mercy. In spite of de Ferrers’ activities against Prince Edward’s estates, his support in the North Midlands was potentially useful to King Henry, as was his money. Ferrers was released and, on paying 1500 marks, was given a pardon, his inheritance was secured, and mediation arranged in his quarrel with Prince Edward. Far from accepting his good fortune, in 1266 he joined a number of previous Montfortian supporters, including Baldwin de Wake, lord of Chesterfield, in a fresh rebellion. Initially, it would seem that the rebels gathered at de Ferrers’ substantial Duffield Castle. However, from Tutbury, the royalist army, under Prince Henry, a nephew of Henry III, bypassed Duffield and proceeded to Chesterfield to intercept a force from the North under John d’Ayville. Robert was, therefore, compelled to move northwards, crossing the River Amber, which was then flooded, reaching Chesterfield on May 15, 1266, just as d’Ayville arrived from Dronfield. There they engaged the Royal forces in battle and were defeated. One account suggests that they were surprised in their quarters and most of them killed. Other accounts suggest that de Ferrers himself managed to take Chesterfield but was left exposed by the defeat of the other participants. Most of them withdrew into the forest where they lived as outlaws for two years. de Ferrers was taken prisoner, some accounts suggesting that he was taken while having treatment for his gout, some that he was in hiding and was betrayed. Robert was captured, attainted of high treason, and imprisoned in Windsor Castle until 1269. Duffield Castle was pulled down and Henry’s second son, Edmund, was given possession of his lands and goods. However, the Dictum of Kenilworth, issued in October 1266, provided that de Ferrers could reclaim his lands in return for a redemption payment of seven times their annual value. They were returned at Windsor in 1269, with a debt of £50,000 to be paid to Edmund by 9 July. Although the chances of Robert finding such a sum were remote, Edmund and his associates made their position more secure by a move that was unlikely to have been intended by those who drafted the Dictum of Kenilworth. De Ferrers was taken to the manor of Cippenham, Buckinghamshire, the property of Richard, earl of Cornwall. There, in the presence of John Chishall, the chancellor, he was required to assign the lands to twelve manucapters. He was kept imprisoned at Richard of Cornwall’s Wallingford Castle until the end of May and on 9 July the estate was transferred to Edmund. In time it would provide a considerable part of the revenues of the Duchy of Lancaster, while de Ferrers was left virtually landless and deprived of his title. He lived for another ten years, during which he attempted to regain his estates, with little success, largely because the machinations at Cippenham had been quietly supported by the King and his council. Edmund, in any case, was absent at the crusades until 1273 and no legal redress could be sought. Soon after Edmund’s return, de Ferrers seized his old Chartley Castle by force, but was soon ejected. He then took a more considered approach, enlisting the help of Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester. In 1274, when Edward, now King, returned to England, de Ferrers pleaded that he had accepted the Kenilworth ruling, with its seven years’ redemption period, but that Edmund had refused. Edmund’s defence was the Cippenham ‘agreement’ and Ferrers’s failure to meet its terms. Ferrers argued that the ‘agreement’ was made under duress, but it was held that chancellor Chishall’s presence at the signing gave it full legal validity. Ferrers’s case was dismissed and, although, in 1275, he was able to recover his manor at Chartley (but not the castle), it marked the end of the great position of what had been one of England’s most powerful families. His final years were spent in the company of his family. His first wife, Mary, had died some time between 1266 and 1269, and the marriage had been childless. He married (2nd) 26 Jun 1269 Eleanor, daughter of Humphrey de Bohun, Knt., of Kimbolton, Huntingdonshire, and Eleanor de Brewes, and granddaughter of Humphrey de Bohun, 2nd Earl of Hereford. Until 1275, when he recovered Chartley, the family appeared to have lived on his mother’s dower lands in Northamptonshire. The couple had two children: John born at Cardiff, Wales 20 Jun 1271 (who later became 1st Baron Ferrers of Chartley) and Eleanor, wife of Robert Fitz Walter, Knt., 1st Lord Fitz Walter. Sir Robert de Ferrers, sometime Earl of Derby, died shortly before 27 Apr 1279 and was buried at St. Thomas Priory at Stafford, Staffordshire. In Michaelmas term 1279 his widow, Eleanor, sued Edmund the king’s brother for dower in a third of Tutbury, Scropton, Rolleston, Marchington, Calyngewode, Uttoxeter, Adgeresley, and Newborough, Staffordshire and Duffield, Spondon, Chatesdene and nine other vills named in Derbyshire. Edmund appeared in court and stated he held nothing in Spondon or Chatesdene, and as regards the rest Eleanor had no claim to dower in them, because neither at the time Robert had married her nor any time afterwards had he been seised of them. About 1280 Eleanor petitioned the king for the restoration of the manor of Chartley, Staffordshire, stating it was part of the inheritance of her son, John de Ferrers, who is under age and in the king’s keeping. In 1284 she sued Thomas de Bray in a plea regarding custody of the land and heir of William le Botiller. In 1286 a commission was appointed by the king to investigate the persons who hunted and carried away deer and felled and carried away trees in the park of Eleanor late the wife of Robert de Ferrers at Chartley, Staffordshire. In 1290 she and her brother, Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford, acknowledged they owed a debt of £200 to Robert de Tibetot and Matthew de Columbers, the king’s butler. Eleanor, Countess of Derby, died 20 Feb 1313/4, and was buried at Walden Abbey, Essex.
 Sir John de Ferrers, 1st Baron Ferrers of Chartley was the son of Robert de Ferrers, 6th Earl of Derby and Alianore de Bohun, daughter of Humphrey de Bohun and Eleanor de Braose, and granddaughter of Humphrey de Bohun, 2nd Earl of Hereford. Sometime before 1300, Sir John married Hawise de Muscegros. Hawise was born on 21 Dec 1276, a daughter of Robert de Muscegros. She died about June 1340. The couple had one son, Robert, who was born in 1309 in Staffordshire and became Robert de Ferrers, 2nd Baron Ferrers of Chartley upon his father’s death. In 1264 John, without any true inheritance other than the turbulent spirit of his father, joined the Earl of Hertford and other rebellious Barons in opposing the collection of subsidies granted by the parliament then held at St Edmundsbury, to the crown. The ferment was allayed by the King’s confirming Magna Carta, and their charter of the forests, and by declaring that in future, no tax should be imposed upon the subject without the consent of Parliament, at the same time granting a pardon to the discontented lords and their adherents, in which pardon John de Ferrers is especially named. Soon after this he petitioned Pope Nicholas III, to interfere to procure him the lands of his late further which he had conferred upon Edmund, Earl of Lancaster, but his suit was ineffectual. John was subsequently involved the Scottish wars which led to his summoning to parliament as Baron Ferrers of Chartley, in the county of Stafford on the 6 Feb 1299 (a seat which came into the family of Ferrers by the marriage of William, fifth Earl of Derby, with Agnes, sister and co-heir of Ranulph, Earl of Chester.) He married Hawyse, niece and heiress of Cecilla de Muscegros, by whom he acquired a great increase in fortune. In 1273, he was again involved in the wars against Scotland and subsequently in 1288 he was constituted Seneschal of Aquitaine by Edward II. He died in 1324 in Gascony, apparently as a result of poisoning, and was succeeded by his son Robert (later Robert de Ferrers, 2nd Baron Ferrers of Chartley).
 Robert de Ferrers, 2nd Baron Ferrers of Chartley, was the son of John de Ferrers, 1st Baron Ferrers of Chartley and Hawise de Muscegros, a daughter of Robert de Muscegros. He inherited the title Baron Ferrers of Chartley upon his father’s death from poisoning in Gascony in 1324 and was summoned to parliament on 25 Feb 1342. Robert served frequently in the Scottish and French wars of Edward III as well as participating the victory at Cressy. Before 20 Oct 1333, he married a woman named Margaret. They had one son, John who succeeded his father as John de Ferrers, 3rd Baron Ferrers of Chartley. After the death of Margaret, Robert remarried to Joan de la Mote before 1350. They had one son, Sir Robert Ferrers, summoned to parliament as the 4th Baron Boteler of Wem Jure uxoris through his marriage to Elizabeth Boteler, 4th Baroness Boteler of Wem, by whom he had Robert Ferrers, 5th Baron Boteler of Wem. Robert de Ferrers, 2nd Baron Ferrers of Chartley, died on the 28 August 1350.
 Helen, married Alan la Zouche (1205–1270). Alan la Zouche (or de la, also Zouch) Baron Zouche (d. 1270) was an Anglo-Norman nobleman and soldier. He was the son of Roger de la Zouch and the grandson of Alan de la Zouch. This elder Alan, the first of the family to be established in England, was a younger son of “Galfridus vicecomes”, that is, in all probability of Geoffrey, viscount of Porhoet in Brittany (d. 1141). His elder brother, Eudes de Porhoet, was for a few years count of Brittany, but with a disputed title, and his uncle, also named Alan, was founder of the viscounty of Rohan. Under Henry II Alan de Porhoet, or de la Zouch, established himself in England, and married Adeliza or Alice de Belmeis, sole heiress of the house of Belmeis, her inheritance including Tong Castle in Shropshire, Ashby (afterwards called Ashby-de-la-Zouch) in Leicestershire, North Molton in Devonshire, and other lands in Cambridgeshire and elsewhere. As her husband, Alan de la Zouch became an important personage at Henry II’s court. Their sons, William de la Zouch (d. 1199) and Roger de la Zouch (d. 1238?), succeeded in turn to these estates. Roger’s Breton connection was almost fatal to him in 1204, but he managed to regain John’s favor, and devoted himself to that king to the last. In the first year of Henry III’s reign he was rewarded by receiving grants of the forfeited estates of his kinsmen, the viscounts of Rohan. He died before 3 Nov 1238. Early service: On 15 Jun 1242, Alan was summoned to attend the king Henry III with horses and arms in Gascony. He was at La Sauve in October, at Bordeaux in March and April 1243, and at La Réole in November. Before 6 Aug 1250, Zouch was appointed justice of Chester and of the four cantreds in North Wales. Matthew Paris says that he got this office by outbidding his predecessor, John de Grey. He offered to pay a ferm of twelve hundred marks instead of five hundred. Zouch boasted that Wales was nearly all reduced to obedience to the English laws, but his high-handed acts provoked royal interference and censure. He continued in office as the Lord Edward’s deputy after the king’s grant of Chester and Wales to his eldest son. In Ireland: Ireland had been among the lands which Edward had received from Henry III in 1254. In the spring of 1256 Zouch was sent to there on the service of the Lord Edward, and soon afterwards he was appointed justice of Ireland under Edward, his first official mandate being dated 27 Jun 1256. In 1257 he was still in Ireland. On 28 Jun 1258 he received a mandate from the king, now under the control of the barons, not to admit any justice or other officer appointed by Edward to Ireland unless the appointment had the consent of the king and the barons. However, he ceased to hold office soon after this, Stephen Longespee being found acting as justice in October 1258. Loyalist: During the barons’ wars Zouch adhered to the king. He was on 9 Jul 1261 appointed sheriff of Northamptonshire, receiving in October a letter from the king urging him to keep his office despite any baronial interlopers. He remained sheriff until 1264, and sometimes ignored the provisions of Magna Carta by acting as justice itinerant in his own shire and also in Buckinghamshire and Hampshire. In 1261 he was also made justice of the forests south of Trent, and in 1263 king’s seneschal. In April 1262 he held forest pleas at Worcester. On 12 Dec 1263 he was one of the royalist barons who agreed to submit all points of dispute to the arbitration of Louis IX. According to some accounts he was taken prisoner early in the battle of Lewes by John Giffard. He escaped almost immediately and took refuge in Lewes Priory, where he is said to have been found after the fight disguised as a monk. In the summer of 1266 he was one of the committee of twelve arbitrators appointed to arrange the terms of the surrender of Kenilworth Castle. On 23 Jun 1267, after the peace between Henry III and Gilbert de Clare, 8th Earl of Gloucester, he was appointed warden of London and constable of the Tower. He continued in office until Michaelmas, whereupon his tenure was prolonged until Easter 1268. In 1270 Zouch had a suit against Earl Warenne with regard to a certain estate. On 19 Jun 1270, the trial was proceeding before the justices in banco at Westminster Hall, and Zouch seemed likely to win the case. He was murderously attacked by Earl Warenne and his followers. Roger, his son, was wounded and driven from the hall. Alan himself was seriously injured and left on the spot. He was still surviving when, on 4 Aug 1270, Warenne made his peace with the crown and agreed to pay a substantial compensation to the injured Zouches. He died on 10 Aug 1270, and on 20 Oct 1270 his son Roger received seisin of his estate. Legacy: Zouch was a benefactor of the Knights Templars, to whom he gave lands at Sibford, and to the Belmeis family foundation of Buildwas Abbey, after having carried on protracted lawsuits with that house. Family: Zouch married Helen (Elena) (d. 1296), one of the daughters and coheirs of Roger de Quincy, 2nd Earl of Winchester, and in 1267 succeeded to her share of the Quincy estates. Their eldest son, Roger de la Zouch, married Ela, daughter of Emelina, countess of Ulster, was summoned to parliament, and died in 1285, being succeeded by his son Alan, then aged 18, who died in 1314, being also summoned to parliament between 1297 and his death.
 Ralph Neville, 2nd Baron Neville de Raby was an English aristocrat, son of Ralph Neville, 1st Baron Neville de Raby and Euphemia de Clavering. Neville led the English forces to victory against the Scottish king David II of Scotland at the Battle of Neville’s Cross on 17 Oct 1346. He married Alice de Audley on 14 Jan 1326 with whom he had thirteen children.
 John Neville, 3rd Baron Neville de Raby was an English peer and soldier. He was born at Castle Raby, County Durham, England to Ralph Neville, 2nd Baron Neville de Raby and Alice de Audley. He fought in the Battle of Neville’s Cross on 17 Oct 1346 as a Captain in his father’s division. He was Knighted in 1360, and after his father’s death in 1367, he succeeded to the title of 3rd Baron Neville of Raby. In 1368 he served as the English ambassdor to France. He was Admiral of the King’s fleet and served in the wars against the Scots and French. He was made a Knight of the Garter in 1369. In 1381 he was appointed a joint Warden of the Eastern March towards Scotland and from 1386 until his death was a full warden. Neville married Maud Percy, daughter of Henry de Percy, 2nd Baron Percy and Idoine de Clifford. After Maud died in 1379, John married a second time to Elizabeth Latimer, daughter of William Latimer, 4th Baron Latimer. He was succeeded by his eldest son, Ralph de Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland. John had six children by Maud Percy and two children by Elizabeth Latimer.
 Sir Ralph de Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland, 4th Baron Neville de Raby, Lord of Richmond, Earl Marshal, KG, PC, was an English nobleman of the House of Neville. He was born in Raby Castle, County Durham, England, the son of John Neville, 3rd Baron Neville de Raby by Lady Maud Percy. He was knighted by Thomas of Woodstock during the French expedition of 1380. In 1388, following the death of his father, he became the fourth Baron Neville de Raby. In 1391, Neville was put on the commission that undertook the duties of Constable in place of Thomas of Woodstock and was repeatedly engaged in negotiations with the Scots. On 29 Sep 1397, due to his support for King Richard II against the Lords Appellant, Neville was created the 1st Earl of Westmorland. As a Lancastrian, he supported the overthrow of Richard by Henry Bolingbroke and Bolingbroke’s coronation as King Henry IV in October 1399. He was rewarded with an appointment as Earl Marshal for life (but resigned in 1412). He was also invested as a Privy Counsellor before 4 Dec 1399. In 1403, he was made a Knight of the Garter, taking the place left vacant by the death of Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York. King Henry IV endowed him with the honor and lordship of Richmond for life. Like the first lords of Richmond and Peter II of Savoy before him, Ralph was endowed with Richmond, but without a title. The Nevilles were natural rivals of the House of Percy. In 1403, the power of the Percys had fallen at the Battle of Shrewsbury. Both marches had been in their hands, but the west marches was now assigned to Neville, whose influence in the east was also paramount. Neville had prevented Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland, from marching to reinforce Henry Hotspur Percy before embarking on a new revolt to secure his enemy, Northumberland. In May 1403, while the Percys were in revolt with Thomas de Mowbray, 4th Earl of Norfolk, and Archbishop Scrope, Neville met them at Shipton Moor, near York, and suggested a parley between the leaders. Scrope and Mowbray were seized after Mowbray let his followers disperse and handed over to Northumberland at Pontefract Castle. It is believed by some historians that the two surrendered voluntarily. If Neville had betrayed them, he certainly shared no part in their execution. In the later part of his career, Neville was mainly engaged with defence of the northern border in his capacity as Warden of the West March (1403-14). In 1415 he decisively defeated an invading Scottish army at the Battle of Yeavering. In 1422, he was a member of the Council of Regency during the minority of King Henry VI. He married twice, and produced numerous issue by each wife: Firstly to Lady Margaret de Stafford, c.1382, daughter of Hugh de Stafford, 2nd Earl of Stafford, and Philippa de Beauchamp. She was buried at Brancepeth Castle. Secondly to Lady Joan Beaufort, before 29 Nov 1396, at Château de Beaufort, Maine-et-Loire, Anjou, France. Lady Joan was the daughter of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster (a younger son of King Edward III), by his third wife Katherine Swynford. Joan Beaufort was buried with her mother, Katherine Swynford, under a carved-stone canopy in the sanctuary of Lincoln Cathedral.