Eliot Rev John

Rev. John Eliot (1604-1690), 1st cousin 13x removed

Appletons'_Eliot_JohnRev. John Eliot was a Puritan missionary to the American Indians whom some called “the apostle to the Indians.”  The picture to the right is a portrait drawing accompanying an article on John Eliot, but the source deprecates any claim it has to an authentic likeness saying, “No authentic likeness of him exists.”  He was born in Widford, Hertfordshire, England and lived at Nazeing as a boy.  He attended Jesus College, Cambridge.  After college, he became assistant to Thomas Hooker at a private school at Little Baddow, Essex.  After Hooker was forced to flee to Holland, Eliot emigrated to Boston, Massachusetts, arranging passage as chaplain on the ship Lyon and arriving on 3 Nov 1631.  Eliot became minister and “teaching elder” at the First Church in Roxbury.  From 1637 to 1638 Eliot participated in both the civil and church trials of Anne Hutchinson during the Antinomian Controversy.  Eliot disapproved of Hutchinson’s views and actions, and was one of the two ministers representing Roxbury in the proceedings which led to her excommunication and exile.  In 1645, Eliot founded the Roxbury Latin School.  He and fellow ministers Thomas Weld (also of Roxbury) and Richard Mather of Dorchester, are credited with editing the Bay Psalm Book, the first book published in the British North American colonies (1640).

First Church of Roxbury / John Eliot Square: The oldest wood frame church in Boston, this 1804 structure is the fifth meetinghouse on this site since the first church was built in 1632. The architect, William Blaney, was a church member and housewright. The land around it is a fragment of the original Roxbury town common. Its most famous pastor was Reverend John Eliot (1604-1690), the missionary to the Algonquin Indians. Due to Eliot's work, First Church in Roxbury was one of only three churches in the Puritan Massachusetts era to admit Native Americans as full members. photo credit: John Phelan

First Church of Roxbury / John Eliot Square: The oldest wood frame church in Boston, this 1804 structure is the fifth meetinghouse on this site since the first church was built in 1632. The architect, William Blaney, was a church member and housewright. The land around it is a fragment of the original Roxbury town common. Its most famous pastor was Reverend John Eliot (1604-1690), the missionary to the Algonquin Indians. Due to Eliot’s work, First Church in Roxbury was one of only three churches in the Puritan Massachusetts era to admit Native Americans as full members. photo credit: John Phelan

John Eliot translated the Bible into the Massachusett language and published it in 1663.

John Eliot translated the Bible into the Massachusett language and published it in 1663.

An important part of Eliot’s ministry focused on the conversion of Massachusett   Indians.Accordingly, Eliot translated the Bible into the Massachusett language and published it in 1663 as Mamusse Wunneetupanatamwe Up-Biblum God.  In 1666, he published The Indian Grammar Begun, again concerning the Massachusett language.  As a missionary, Eliot strove to consolidate Native Americans in planned towns, thereby encouraging them to recreate a Christian society.  At one point, there were 14 towns of so-called “Praying Indians”, the best documented being at Natick, Massachusetts.  Other praying Indian towns included: Littleton (Nashoba), Lowell (Wamesit, initially incorporated as part of Chelmsford), Grafton (Hassanamessit), Marlborough (Okommakamesit), a portion of Hopkinton that is now in the Town of Ashland (Makunkokoag), Canton (Punkapoag) and Mendon-Uxbridge (Wacentug). In 1662, Eliot witnessed the signing of the deed for Mendon with Nipmuck Indians for “Squinshepauk Plantation”.  Eliot’s better intentions can be seen in his involvement in the legal case, The Town of Dedham v. The Indians of Natick, which concerned a boundary dispute.  Besides answering Dedham’s complaint point by point, Eliot stated that the colony’s purpose was to benefit the native people.  Praying Indian towns were also established by other missionaries, including the Presbyterian Samson Occom, himself of Mohegan descent.  All praying Indian towns suffered disruption during King Philip’s War (1675), and for the most part lost their special status as Indian self-governing communities in the course of the 18th and 19th centuries, in some cases being paid to move to Wisconsin and other areas further West.

Eliot also wrote The Christian Commonwealth: or, The Civil Policy Of The Rising Kingdom of Jesus Christ, considered the first book on politics written by an American, as well as the first book to be banned by a North American governmental unit.  Written in the late 1640s, and published in England in 1659, it proposed a new model of civil government based on the system Eliot instituted among the converted Indians, which was based in turn on the government Moses instituted among the Israelites in the wilderness (Exodus 18).  Eliot asserted that “Christ is the only right Heir of the Crown of England,” and called for an elected theocracy in England and throughout the world.  The accession to the throne of Charles II of England made the book an embarrassment to the Massachusetts colony.  In 1661 the General Court forced Eliot to issue a public retraction and apology, banned the book and ordered all copies destroyed.

Death and Legacy: Rev. John Eliot died in 1690, aged 85, his last words being “Welcome joy!”

In 1689 John Eliot donated 75 acres (30 ha) of land to support the Eliot School in what was then Roxbury’s Jamaica Plain district and now is a historic Boston neighborhood.  Two other Puritans had donated land on which to build the school in 1676, but boarding students especially required support.  Eliot’s donation required the school (renamed in his honor) to accept both Negroes and Indians without prejudice, very unusual at the time.  The school continues near its original location today.

Natick remembers John Eliot with a monument on the grounds of the Bacon Free Library.

John Eliot monument, South Natick, Massachusetts

John Eliot monument, South Natick, Massachusetts

 

The Eliot Elementary School in Needham, Massachusetts, founded in 1956, is named for him.

The liturgical calendar of the Episcopal Church (USA) remembers Eliot with a feast day on May 21.

John Eliot (1604 – 1690), 1st cousin 13x removed – Bennet Eliot (1573 – 1621) – Edward Elliot (1546 – 1595) – Jane Elliot (1576 – 1667) – Elizabeth Butler (1610 – 1676) – Mary (Elizabeth) Claiborne (1630 – 1710) – William Harris (1669 – 1733) – Robert Overton Harris (1696 – 1765) – Anna Harris (1724 – 1775) – Sarah Ann Dabney (1740 – 1822) – Dabney Waller (1772 – 1849) – Elizabeth Dabney Waller (1808 – 1881) – Jacintha Ann Pollard (1832 – 1894) – Elizabeth Minor Hancock (1850 – 1928) – Seddie Gunnell (1875 – 1946) – Elizabeth Gunnell Hamlin (1901 – 1982) – Tor Martin Hylbom (1939 – 2009) – Tor Martin (Majerus) Hylbom

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