Johnson Lyndon Baines

Lyndon Baines Johnson (1908-1973), 8th cousin 4x removed

State of the Union Address, 1964. [LBJ Library photo by Cecil Stoughton. #3-6-WH64]

Biography (adapted from the website of the LBJ Presidential Library):

Lyndon B. Johnson, 36th President of the United States (1963-1969) -  a speech 28 July 1965 in the White House in Washington, D.C., about US policy in the Vietnam war, ordering more US troops to Vietnam. 29 June American troops have gone onto the offensive for the first time in Vietnam. In a joint operation with South Vietnamese forces they overran a network of trenches and tunnels in a Vietcong stronghold 30 miles east of Saigon. (Photo credit should read AFP/AFP/Getty Images)

Lyndon B. Johnson, 36th President of the United States (1963-1969) – a speech 28 July 1965 in the White House in Washington, D.C., about US policy in the Vietnam war. (Photo credit: AFP/AFP/Getty Images)

Lyndon Baines Johnson was born 27 Aug 1908 in central Texas, not far from Johnson City, which his family had helped settle.  Growing up, he felt the sting of rural poverty, working his way through Southwest Texas State Teachers College (now known as Texas State University) and learning compassion for the poverty and discrimination of others when he taught students of Mexican descent in Cotulla, Texas.  In 1937 he campaigned successfully for the House of Representatives on a New Deal platform, effectively aided by his wife, the former Claudia “Lady Bird” Taylor, whom he had married after a whirlwind courtship in 1934.  During World War II, Lyndon Johnson served briefly in the Navy as a lieutenant commander, receiving a Silver Star in the South Pacific.  After six terms in the House, he was elected to the Senate in 1948.  In 1953, he became the youngest Minority Leader in Senate history, and the following year, when the Democrats won control, Majority Leader.  With rare legislative skill he obtained passage of a number of measures during the Eisenhower Administration.  He became, by many accounts, the most powerful Majority Leader of the twentieth century.

Johnson being sworn in aboard “Air Force One” by Federal Judge Sarah T. Hughes, 22 Nov 1963. On the right is Mrs. Kennedy; to the left is Mrs. Johnson.

In the 1960 campaign, Johnson, as John F. Kennedy’s running mate, was elected Vice President.  On 22 Nov 1963, when Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Lyndon Baines Johnson became the 36th President.  Shortly after assuming the Presidency, Johnson used his legislative prowess to pass two bills that Kennedy had endorsed but was unable to get through Congress at the time of his death: a tax cut and a civil rights act.   The latter, which would become the Civil Rights Act of 1964, became the first effective civil rights law since Reconstruction, outlawing segregation and discrimination throughout American society.  Next he enacted his own agenda, urging the Nation “to build a great society, a place where the meaning of man’s life matches the marvels of man’s labor.”  In 1964, with Hubert Humphrey as his running mate, Johnson won the Presidency against Republican challenger, Barry Goldwater, garnering 61 percent of the vote and had the widest popular margin in American history – more than 15,000,000 votes.

President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (2 Jul 1964). Among the guests behind him is Martin Luther King, Jr.

The War Against Poverty, Public Broadcasting, Medicare, and more: President Johnson used his 1964 mandate to bring his vision for a Great Society to fruition in 1965, pushing forward a sweeping legislative agenda that would become one of the most ambitious and far-reaching in the nation’s history.  Congress, at times augmenting or amending Johnson’s legislation, rapidly enacted his recommendations.  As a result, his administration passed more than sixty education bills, initiated a wide-scale fight against poverty, saw federal support of the arts and humanities, championed urban renewal, environmental beautification and conservation, enabled development of depressed regions and pushed for control and prevention of crime and delinquency.  Millions of elderly people were also given the means for proper medical care through the 1965 Medicare Amendment to the Social Security Act.  Johnson’s Great Society also included the continued advancement of civil rights.  He realized the passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which removed poll taxes and tests that represented an obstacle to the ballot among many Americans of color, and the Civil Rights Act of 1968, preventing discrimination in housing sales and rentals.  Additionally, he appointed the first African American cabinet member and U.S. Supreme Court Justice, Thurgood Marshall.

Under Johnson, the U.S. also made impressive  gains in its space program, which he had championed since its start.  When three American astronauts successfully orbited the moon on Apollo 8 in December 1968, becoming the first to leave earth’s orbit, Johnson congratulated them: “You’ve taken…all of us, all over the world, into a new era.”  The mission set the stage for the Apollo 11 mission seven months later, which saw men walk on the moon for the first time.

Nevertheless, two overriding crises had been gaining momentum since 1965.  Despite the beginning of new antipoverty and anti-discrimination programs, unrest and rioting in black ghettos troubled the Nation.  President Johnson steadily exerted his influence against segregation and on behalf of law and order, but there was no early solution.

By the time this photo was taken in Washington, D.C. in October 1967, support for the Vietnam War was dropping and the anti-Vietnam War movement was gaining momentum.

The other crisis arose from the U.S. war in Vietnam, which the U.S. had committed to under Eisenhower and Kennedy.  Despite Johnson’s efforts to end Communist aggression by increasing U.S. troop involvement to leverage a peaceful settlement, fighting continued.  Controversy and protests over the war – and Johnson – had become acute by the end of March 1968, when Johnson limited the bombing of North Vietnam in order to initiate peace negotiations.  At the same time, he startled the world by withdrawing as a candidate for re-election so that he might devote his full efforts, unimpeded by politics, to the quest to strike an honorable peace.

When Johnson left office, peace talks were underway.  He died suddenly of a heart attack at his Texas ranch on 22 Jan 1973.  The day before his death, he had learned that peace was at hand in Vietnam.

Today Americans continue to feel the impact of Johnson’s legislative legacy in nearly every aspect of American life.

 

(President, 36th) Lyndon Baines Johnson (1908 – 1973), 8th cousin 4x removed – Samuel Ealy Johnson Jr. (1877 – 1937) – Samuel Ealy Johnson Sr. (1838 – 1915) – Lucy Webb Barnett (1798 – 1857) – Leonard Barnett (1773 – 1828) – Lucy Webb (1731 – 1808) – Martha Peggy Claiborne (1705 – 1735) – Thomas Claiborne (1680 – 1732) – Thomas Claiborne (1647 – 1683) – William Claiborne (1600 – 1677) – Mary (Elizabeth) Claiborne (1630 – 1710) – William Harris (1669 – 1733) – Robert Overton Harris (1696 – 1765) – Anna Harris (1724 – 1775) – Sarah Ann Dabney (1740 – 1822) – Dabney Waller (1772 – 1849) – Elizabeth Dabney Waller (1808 – 1881) – Jacintha Ann Pollard (1833 – ) – Elizabeth Minor Hancock (1850 – 1928) – Seddie Gunnell (1875 – 1946) – Elizabeth Gunnell Hamlin (1901 – 1982) – Tor Martin Hylbom (1939 – 2009) – Tor Martin (Majerus) Hylbom

 

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