My name is Tor Hylbom, and this is my website / blog dedicated to the subject of family history. I have been fascinated by genealogy for many years, but it was only since some time in 2011 that I have been working in earnest on a family history project to (1) find out and record as much as I can about my ancestors, (2) organize the results of my research and (3) make the information available online. I was greatly inspired and assisted in this endeavor by the research previously conducted by my paternal grandmother, Elizabeth (Hamlin) Hylbom, who died in 1982. This site became “live” on 11 May 2012, and I’m making information available here as it evolves. Slowly, the website is taking shape through the accumulation of what I modestly call A COLLECTION OF FAMILY HISTORY NOTES, gathered from secondary sources available in libraries or digital archives (many of which are stored on my web server and available for downloading, copyright considerations permitting). As work proceeds, I will be updating my progress in my blog and posting drafts of my research for others to explore if they are interested.
The most up-to-date information is available on Ancestry.com, which I use as my sysytem of record, but viewing my tree there may require a subscription. To see the Hylbom family tree on Ancestry.com, click — > HERE
To see the Hylbom family tree on RootsWeb (viewable by the public except for details of living persons), click — > HERE (last updated 17 Jan 2014)
The project does NOT purport to be a work of original research. I am an amateur genealogist and historian, and what I have learned has been winnowed imperfectly and is only as good as the secondary sources I have consulted. The reader must always keep in mind that every single ancestral contention in this or any genealogy is subject to being refuted (or reinforced) the instant some new document is found! It’s frustrating at times, but that also makes genealogical research exciting. While the greatest care has been taken to avoid errors, some undoubtedly have crept in. The reasons are clear: Family and civic records do not necessarily agree. Many people live and die who do not know when and where they were born, cannot tell the names of their grandparents or the maiden name of their mother or grandmothers. Few families think it of sufficient importance to keep a correct record made at the time events transpire, but trust to memory. However, I believe every line of descent is accurately described, even if individual details are missing or murky or even wrong in some particulars. Even though the information is never perfectly accurate and could be wrong-headed in some cases, it’s fun, entertaining and informative to make the best of the imperfect sources out there to learn the story of our ancestors as best we can.
I believe it is very important for everyone to learn about family history and understand how they fit into the big picture of which we are all a part. Knowing yourself includes knowing where you come from and how you got here. I highly recommend everyone do their own genealogy research. It is an incredibly fascinating and rewarding undertaking. What you learn in the quest for your own family history will impact your life, the lives of your children, your grandchildren, and the potentially millions of descendants who will follow. Everyone has a life story worth remembering and preserving for future generations. If we don’t take the time to preserve the stories, they will be lost forever, and that is indeed a tragedy.
Research into my family’s history is ongoing. Additions and corrections will undoubtedly be made in the future.
And now, on to the story of of my family…
I have some ancestors who appear in both my pateranal and maternal lineages: Thomas Lord and Dorothy Bird, Thomas Newell and Rebeckah Olmsted and Thomas Nichols and Hannah Griffin. This makes my parents 9th cousins 1x removed. Their children, Tor (me), Paul, Matthew and Amy Hylbom are also 6th cousins to each other through Jonathan Kearsley (1718-1782) and his wife Jane (1720-1801).
My English royal ancestry (Houses of Norman and Plantagenet) can be traced back to William I (“the Conqueror”), to whom we are related in multiple ways. Also, through Isabella of France (the wife of Edward II), we are descended from the last Anglo-Saxon King of England, Harold II Godwinson. These lines are connected through the following immigrant lines (all paternal): Anne (Marbury) Hutchinson (1591-1643), Pardon Tillinghast (1622-1718), William Harris (1596-1656), William Overton (1638-1697), Elizabeth West (1573-1633) and Mary Bullock (1652-1730), who is discussed under the heading of Richard Haile (1640-1720). I can also trace ancestral connections to at least four of the “Sureties” of Magna Carta of 1215. The old-style politics of the time was a dangerous game, and one didn’t want to be on the losing side. The royals and nobles in our line were a colorful lot. After being imprisoned and/or subjected to every torture the medieval mind could devise, an inordinately large number of them were variously beheaded, drawn and quartered, hanged, disemboweled, hacked to pieces and fed to the dogs, etc. Some of their stories are related under a separate article on Royal Ancestors.
Based on the available evidence, it is likely that my first ancestor to set foot on the shores of North America was Capt. William King (1544-1609), my paternal 11th great grandfather. He commanded the ship Diamond, which arrived at Jamestown, Virginia in 1609. This was just two years after the settlement of Jamestown in 1607. He did not settle in Virginia, and in late 1609, on the return voyage to England, his vessel was wrecked in a storm, and he was lost at sea. Several years later, his son, Capt. John King (1570-1669) of the ship Falcon, went first to Barbadoes and then to Virginia, where he eventually settled several years later.
My youngest immigrant ancestor may be Thomas Lewis (1633-1709), who arrived at Boston, Massachusetts from England on the ship Elizabeth in 1634. He was only nine months old when he left England, and he must have arrived with his parents in Massachusetts before his first birthday. He is my paternal 9th great grandfather. It could also possibly be George Major (1631-1700), who arrived with his parents in Virginia in probably 1631 or 1632. He is my paternal 10th great grandfather. Three other immigrant ancestors who arrived as youngsters are:
- Sarah Freeborn (1632-1670), who arrived in Boston, Massachusetts from England on the ship Francis. She was two years old and was accompanied by William Freeborn (her father), Mary Wilson (her mother) and Mary (her seven year old sister). She is my paternal 10th great grandmother.
- Elizabeth Baker (1632-1689), who arrived in Boston, Massachusetts from England on the ship Elizabeth & Ann on 14 May 1635. She was three years old and was accompanied by Alexander Baker (her father), Elizabeth (her mother) and Christian (her one year old sister). She is my maternal 8th great grandmother.
- Hannah Stocking (1630-1672), who arrived in Boston, Massachusetts from England on the ship Griffin in 1633. She was three years old and was accompanied by George Stocking (her father), her mother and her older siblings (Samuel, Sarah and Lydia). She is my materanal 9th great grandmother.
My historical connections to the Mayflower voyage of 1620:
I have identified four ancestors (all on my father’s side) who were passengers on the Mayflower, which arrived at Plymouth, Massachusetts in 1620:
- John Alden (1599-1687), paternal 10th great grandfather
- Priscilla Mullins (1602-1688), paternal 10th great grandmother and wife of John Alden
- William Mullins (1578-1621), paternal 11th great grandfather and father of Priscilla Mullins
- Alice (1578-1621), paternal 11th great grandmother and mother of Priscilla Mullins
I have also identified at least ten Mayflower passengers who are also related to me, though not directly ancestral:
- Isaac Allerton (1586-1659), great grandfather of 1st cousin 10x removed Elizabeth Lee (1709-1750) whose paternal grandfather is Richard Lee (1617-1664), my 10th great grandfather.
- John Billington (1580-1630) is the paternal grandfather of Elizabeth Billington. She was the second wife of Richard Bullock, paternal 10th great grandfather. In 1630, John Billington was convicted of murder at Plymouth, and he has the distinction of being the first person to be hanged for any crime in New England.
- William Brewster (1566-1644), great grandfather of wife of 9th great grand uncle, Sarah Allerton (1671-1731) wife of Hancock Lee (1653-1709) whose father is Richard Lee (1617-1664), my 10th great grandfather.
- Stephen Hopkins (1581-1644), paternal grandfather of wife (Bethia Hopkins) of 9th great grand uncle (Samuel Stocking).
- John Howland (1602-1673), 10th great grand uncle. He is the brother of Arthur Howland, who also immigrated to Massachusetts, though not on the Mayflower.
- Joan Hurst (1567-1621), mother-in-law of 10th great grand uncle (John Howland)
- Elizabeth Tilley (1607-1687), wife of 10th great grand uncle (John Howland)
- John Tilley (1571-1621), father-in-law of 10th great grand uncle (John Howland)
- Mary Wentworth (1569-1627), great grandmother of wife of Sarah Allerton (1671-1731) wife of Hancock Lee (1653-1709), the son of Richard Lee (1617-1664), my 10th great grandfather.
All of the male passengers listed above were also signers of the Mayflower Compact.
Some of my ancestors have been the subject of various Mayflower hoaxes and legends over the years:
- There was a Richard Clarke among the Mayflower passengers of whom almost nothing is known. His name is not known to have occurred in the records of Leyden, so he was probably one of the passengers who joined the voyage from England. The only record of his existence is William Bradford’s naming him as a passenger and saying simply that he died the first winter and left no descendants at Plymouth. The Clarke surname is far too common to do any serious research, as there is little hope of ever discovering or learning more about this passenger or connecting him to our direct ancestor, Joseph Clarke (1618-1694), my 8th great grandfather.
- There is also persistent family tradition that there was a George Carr, who was among the crew of the Mayflower as ship’s carpenter, but not included in any of the passenger lists. Some sources identify this man as the brother of my 11th great grandfather, Benjamin Carr (1592-1635), making him my 11th great grand uncle. The truth will probably never be known. The Mayflower likely carried a crew of about 25 or 30. Unfortunately, no passenger list has preserved the names of the crew, and only a few names are known through compemporary accounts. For details, refer to the discussion under the heading of Robert Carr (1614-1684).
- Despite published claims, my 10th great grandfather, John Dunham (1589-1669) was not a passenger on the Mayflower, although he was a member of the same church community in Leyden, Holland from which these “Pilgrims” came, migrated to Plymouth, Massachusetts at a later date and became a leader of the community in the new colony. The true story is told under his own heading.
- There is a tradition that the wife of my 9th great grandfather William Kelsey was named “Bethia Hopkins”, a daughter of Mayflower passenger Stephen Hopkins. This claim does not hold up to scrutiny. The true identity of William Kelsey’s wife is unknown to us.
Other “Pilgrim” Ships:
- List known ships, dates, passengers
Many of my ancestors came to America in order to freely practice their religion. Ironically, some of my ancestors experienced persecution in the colonies for their religious beliefs by others who had fled England for the same reasons. The early communities these “Pilgrims” founded were not tolerant of religious differences. A few of my ancestors stand out for being deeply involved in the opening volleys of the struggle for religious freedom and tolerance in Massachusetts, and especially in Rhode Island . The most noteworthy are Mary (Barret) Dyer, Anne (Marbury) Hutchinson and Roger Williams. Another noteworthy figure is the brother of Joseph Clarke, my 10th great grandfather, named John Clarke. Others who were persecuted for their beliefs were John Russell…
Many of my immigrant ancestors also settled in the colony of Virginia before their descendents spread westward across the North American continent. Several of these ancestors belong to what became known as the “First Families of Virginia”, such as: Carr, Claiborne, Dabney, King, Lee, Scarborough and Waller. These so-called “First Families” were those families in Colonial Virginia who were socially prominent and wealthy, but not necessarily the earliest settlers. They originated with colonists from England who primarily settled at Jamestown, Williamsburg and along the James River and other navigable waters in Virginia during the 17th century. As there was a propensity to marry within their narrow social scope for many generations, many descendants bear the surnames, which became common in the growing colony.
A few of my ancestors were part of the French Huguenot migration to Virginia around 1700. The stories of these refugees and their families in America are found under the headings of Antoine Trabue (1667-1724) and Magdalene Verrueil (1685-1731), Bartomomew Dupuy (1652-1743) and Marie Gardier ( -1738) and Moise Moyre Verrueil (1651-1701) and Magdalene Prodhomme (1658-1729).
Connections to the first settlers of Hartford, Connecticut
There are the 163 men and women listed in the Book of Distribution of Land as being those who settled in Hartford, Connecticut before February 1640. Their names are inscribed on a monument in Hartford’s Ancient Burying Ground, and I am directly descended from many of them, on both my mother’s and my father’s side: William Andrews, George Graves, Stephen Hart, Thomas Judd, Ralph Keeler, William Kelsey, Thomas Lord, Matthew Marvin, Thomas Root, Timothy Stanley, Thomas Stanton, George Stocking, Thomas Thompson, Richard Watts, John Webster, possibly others.
Connections to the first settlers of Norwalk, Connecticut
Connections to the first settlers of Norwich, Connecticut
Connections to the first settlers of Stonington, Connecticut
Connections to the first settlers of Stratford, Connecticut
In 1639, Stratford, Connecticut (formerly known as Cupheag Plantation, and prior to that, Pequonnocke) was founded by Puritan leader Rev. Adam Blakeman (pronounced Blackman), and either 17 families – according to legend (or approximately 35 families, suggested by later research) who had recently arrived in Connecticut from England seeking religious freedom. I am directly descended from many of them (on both my mother’s and my father’s side) including: John Beach, Rev. Adam Blakeman, William Beardsley, John Birdseye, Richard Booth, Thomas Fairchild, Joseph Hawley, Robert Seabrook, Moses Wheeler and William Wilcoxson. Stratford is one of many towns in the northeastern American colonies founded as part of the Great Migration in the 1630s when Puritan families fled an increasingly polarized England in the decade before the civil war between Charles I and Parliament (led by Oliver Cromwell). Some of the Stratford settlers were from families who had first moved from England to the Netherlands to seek religious freedom, like their predecessors on the Mayflower, and decided to come to the New World when their children began to adopt the Dutch culture and language.
Like other Puritan or Pilgrim towns founded during this time, early Stratford was a place where church leadership and town leadership were united under the pastor of the church, in this case Reverend Blakeman. The goal of these communities was to create outposts of religious idealism where the wilderness would separate them from the interference of kings, parliaments, or any other secular authority.
Rev. Adam Blakeman was the leader of Stratford until his death in 1665, but as the second generation of Stratford grew up, many of the children rejected what they perceived as the exceptional austerity of the town’s founders. This and later generations sought to change the religious dictums of their elders, and the utopian nature of Stratford and similar communities was gradually replaced with more standard colonial administration. By the late 17th century, the Connecticut government had assumed political control over Stratford.
Many descendants of the original founding Puritan families remain in Stratford today after over 350 years; for centuries they often intermarried within the original small group of 17th century Pilgrim families. Stratford’s original name was Cupheag, but was later changed to honor Stratford-upon-Avon in England. Despite its Puritan origins, Stratford was the site of the first Anglican church in Connecticut, founded in 1707 and ministered by the Rev. Dr. Samuel Johnson. Settlers from Stratford went on to found other American cities and towns, including Newark, New Jersey, established in 1666 by members of the Stratford founding families who believed the town’s religious purity had been compromised by the changes after Blakeman‘s death. Other towns such as Cambria, New York (now Lockport, New York) were founded or expanded around new churches by Stratford descendants taking part in the westward migration.
Connections to the first settlers of Swansea, Massachusetts
Connections to the first settlers of Watertown, Massachusetts
Watertown, first known as Saltonstall Plantation, was one of the earliest of the Massachusetts Bay settlements. It was begun early in 1630 by a group of settlers led by Sir Richard Saltonstall (1586-1661) and the Rev. George Phillips and officially incorporated that same year. Before leaving England for North America, he served as a Justice of the Peace for the West Riding of Yorkshire and was Lord of the Manor of Ledsham. He was one of the grantees of the Massachusetts Company and left England in 1630 aboard the Arbella. He was named First Assistant to Governor John Winthrop, but the illness of one of his daughters caused him to return to England in 1631, along with his wife, daughters, and two of his sons. He maintained an interest in the colonies and was one of the patentees of the Connecticut Colony. Although Saltonstall only remained in Massachusetts for a brief time, his descendants played a major role in New England history. Sir Richard Saltonstall’s second wife, Lady Elizabeth West (1573 – 1633), is my 11th great grandmother. The granddaughter of Lady Elizabeth West is Anne Humphrey (1625-1693), my immigrant ancestor who married John Myles (1621-1683), who is discussed under his own heading.
Connections to the first settlers of Yarmouth, Massachusetts:
Connections to the first settlers of Elizabethtown (Elizabeth), New Jersey:
The Dorchester Company and the Higginson Fleet of 1629
Connections to the first settlers of the colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations
Connections to the first settlers of Block Island (Rhode Island)
Connections to the history of “Witchcraft” in New England
Connections to the early history of the “Baptist” churches of America
Roger Williams, Pardon Tillinghast & John Clark (brother of Joseph Clark) of Providence, Rhode Island and John Myles & Sampson Mason of Swansea, Massachusetts.
The story of Roger Williams (1600-1685), founder of the first Baptist Church organized on American soil, and his banishment from Massachusetts into the wilderness because of his opposition to the Church of England and championing of the principles of individual soul liberty and religious freedom, is well known. Roger Williams began an Anglican, was educated at Cambridge and was ordained into the ministry of the Church of England. He became, in turn, a Puritan (Congregationalist, still within the Church of England), a Separatist, a Baptist, and finally a “Seeker”. There is some evidence that he had also been a follower of George Fox’s Quakerism. By the time he reached America, he was convinced of Separatist views and refused the offer to assume the pastorate of the Boston church because it was unwilling to officially sever all ties with the Church of England. Having been banished from Massechusetts, he founded the settlement of Providence in June of 1636. In 1638 a church was organized, and by 1639 it was practicing “believer’s baptism”, Roger Williams having been baptized by a church member.
From his church in Providence, Rhode Island, came one John Clarke, close associate of Roger Williams and probably the most prestigious Baptist leader of his time. The church he established in Newport, 1641 became the second Baptist church in America, Clarke being its teaching elder from the beginning. John Clarke had fled England’s persecution of Puritans under Archbishop Laud. After arriving in Boston, he saw problems with Congregationalism and moved south to Newport and established a church, which became “Particular Baptist”, Clarke being the teaching elder.
John Myles (1621-1683), another Welshman, came to America in 1662, having been ejected from the Established Church. He settled at Swansea, Massachusetts near Plymouth, and in the following years was responsible for the establishment of two churches.
Connections to the Shaker community of Union Village, near Lebanon, Ohio
About 25% of my English ancestors settled in the colony of Virginia. Unfortunately for anyone with roots in Virginia, there are problems in discovering family history due to the the loss of records (many of which were burned during the Civil War of 1861-65) and the less than organized state of those records which do exist. Unfortunately, Virginia genealogy has not been blessed with the bountiful attention of professional genealogists on such a grand scale as New England. Thus, while several Virginia lines would seem promising in their connections back to England, very few appear to have been followed with the determined attention necessary to complete the link. Often, those of us with Virginia ancestors have little more to go on than “family tradition”. Very few of these Virginia families have been treated in their entirety in any reliable published source, and, in some cases, the information is only complete thanks to the assistance of several extremely industrious and determined researchers, who did the real leg-work in finding those first-hand records in court houses, unpublished family bibles, local parish registers and cemetery grave markers. I have presented the history of these families as best I can from the sources available.
My Ancestors and the Settlement of Kentucky
Pennsylvania “Scots-Irish” Ancestors
With very few exceptions, my immigrant ancestors migrated from The British Isles (generally England, but Scotland or Wales in a some cases) in the early colonial era (before 1700 in most cases) to Virginia or New England. Approximately one-eighth of my ancestors were of Pennsylvania “Scots-Irish” origin (through the Henderson line on my mother’s side), who arrived in the first half of the 18th century. Exceptions to this general pattern are few enough to be enumerated succinctly, as follows:
- The Swedish Connection: The three individuals listed below arrived in this country relatively recently, and as such account for 50% of my ancestors, but their histories are relatively unknown, as my research has (to this point) been focused almost exclusively on the origins of my family in colonial America:
- Tor Emil Hylbom (1900-1966), paternal grandfather. Born in Sweden and immigrated in 1923, eventually settling in Colorado.
- George V. Walhom (1862-after 1950) and Ella Tufvesson (or Tuveson, Tweson) (1865-1937), maternal great grandparents. Born in Sweden and immigrated in 1886 and 1877, settling in Illinois.
- The French Huguenots:
- Antoine Trabue (1667-1724) and Magdalene Verrueil (1685-1731) born in France and immigrated to Virginia about 1700 (after living as Huguenot refugees for several years in the Netherlands, Germany and England).
- Bartomomew Dupuy (1652-1743) and Marie Gardier ( -1738) born in France and immigrated to Virginia about 1700 (after living as Huguenot refugees for several years in the Netherlands, Germany and England).
- Moise Moyre Verrueil (1651-1701) and Magdalene Prodhomme (1658-1729) born in France and the Netherlands and immigrated to Virginia about 1700 (after living as Huguenot refugees for several years in the Netherlands, Germany and England).
- The Dutch settlers of New Netherland / New Amsterdam (later New York):
- Laurens J DeCamp (1645-1719) born in France.
- Yellis J DeMandeville (1625-1709) and Elsje Hendricks (1628-1701) born in the Netherlands and immigrated to New Amsterdam (New York).
- Meindert Doodes (1617-1677) and Mary Geret (1611-1687) born in the Netherlands; settled in Virginia.
- Stubble Stubbleson ( -1669), the father of Anne Stubbleson (discussed under the heading of John Ferguson). He is referred to as an alien in the records of Old Rappahannock County, Virginia (i.e. not born in the colony or any other British territory) – probably Dutch.
Two of my 10th or 11th grandparents may have been Chief Totopotomoi (a grandson of a sister of Chief Powhatan, the father of Pocahontas) and Queen Cockacoeske of the Pamunkey Tribe of Virginia, although this is unlikely to be proven one way or the other. These speculations are explained under the lineage of Cornelius Dabney (paternal line).
Two of my 11th great grandfathers (Robert Carr, or Kerr and Gen. Robert Overton) were imprisoned in the Tower of London. The circumstances are explained under the lineages of Thomas Carr and William Overton (both paternal lines).
John Alden (Jr.), the son of my 10th great grandfather, John Alden, was one of the accused in the famous “Salem Witch Trials” of 1692. He was imprisoned for a time before escaping, and he was not one of the unfortunates who paid for the public’s mass hysteria with their lives.
I have familial connections to the commanders of forces of both the Union and Confederate armies in the Civil War of 1861-65 (discussed in articles under “Notable Kin”):
- On the Confederate side: My paternal 10th great grandfather, Richard Henry Lee (1617-1664) is the 3rd great grandfather of Gen. Robert E. Lee, making the General my 4th cousin 7x removed.
- On the Union side:
- My paternal 9th great grandfather, Thomas Minor (1608-1690) is the paternal 5th great grandfather of Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, making the General my 6th cousin 4x removed.
- My paternal 11th great grandfather, George Allen (1568-1648) is the paternal 6th great grandfather of Gen. George B.McClellan, making the General my 7th cousin 5x removed.
- My maternal 10th great grandfather, Matthias (Matthew) St. John (Sension) (1604-1669) is the maternal 5th great grandfather of Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman, making the General my 6th cousin 5x removed.
 Through Thomas Newell (1620-1689) and Rebeckah Olmsted (1624-1698)
 Several of my ancestors and their families arrived on this ship: Alexander and Elizabeth Baker (my maternal 9th great grandparents), their daughter Elizabeth (my maternal 8th great grandmother) and her sister Christian, Thomas Lord (my maternal and paternal 10th great grandfather), Anna Lord (my paternal 9th great grandmother), Dorothy Lord (my maternal 9th great grandmother), Robert Carr (my paternal 10th great grandfather), Robert’s brother Caleb (my 10th great grand uncle) and John Borden (my 11th great grand uncle), the younger brother of Richard Borden (my paternal 10th great grandfather). These individuals and their families are discussed under their our headings.
 Puritan leaders Rev. Thomas Hooker and Rev. John Cotton (1585-1652), my 11th great grand uncle, were on the same voyage of the Griffin, as was Edward Hutchinson (1613-1675), the eldest son of my 10th great grandparents, William Hutchinson (1586-1641) and Anne (Marbury) Hutchinson (1591-1643). The next year, William Hutchinson, Anne (Marbury) Hutchinson (my 10th great grandparents on our father’s side) and the rest of their family arrived in a subsequent voyage of the Griffin in 1634.
 John’s wife (Elinor) and sons (John and Francis) accompanied John on the Mayflower.
 The Mayflower Compact was the first governing document of Plymouth Colony (Massachusetts). It was written by the colonists, later together known to history as the “Pilgrims”, who crossed the Atlantic aboard the Mayflower. Almost half of the colonists were part of a separatist group seeking the freedom to practice Christianity according to their own determination and not the will of the Anglican Church. It was signed on 11 Nov 1620 (O.S.), by 41 of the ship’s 101 passengers, while the Mayflower was anchored in what is now Provincetown Harbor within the hook at the northern tip of Cape Cod. The Mayflower was originally bound for the mouth of the Hudson River, in land granted in a patent from the Crown to the London Virginia Company. The decision was made instead to land farther north, in what is now Massachusetts. This inspired some of the “strangers” (colonists who were not members of the congregation of religious dissenters leading the expedition) to proclaim that since the settlement would not be made in the agreed-upon Virginia territory, they “would use their own liberty; for none had power to command them….” To prevent this, many of the other colonists decided to establish a government. The Mayflower Compact was based simultaneously upon a majoritarian model (even though the signers were not in the majority) and the settlers’ allegiance to the king. It was in essence a social contract in which the settlers consented to follow the compact’s rules and regulations for the sake of survival. In November 1620, the Mayflower landed at Plymouth, named after the major port city in Devon, England from whence the Mayflower sailed. The settlers named their settlement “Plimoth” or “Plimouth”, old English spellings of the name.
 There was a “George Hubbard” among the founders of Hartford, but he is not “my” George Hubbard. Refer to discussion under the heading of George Hubbard (1600-1683).