Born in England. Arrived in Massachusetts about 1638-9 and
Born in England. Arrived in Massachusetts 1642.
A good source of information on the Hamlin family of Barnstable, Massachusetts is The Hamlin family: a genealogy of James Hamlin of Barnstable, Massachusetts, eldest son of James Hamlin, the immigrant, who came from London, England, and settled in Barnstable, 1639, 1639-1902, by H. Franklin Andrews (Exira, Iowa) 1902.
In 1909, Andrews published a volume entitled The Royal Lineage of the Hamlins (Being the branch of the Hamlin Family descended through Mary Dunham, who was born 1642, probably at Plymouth, Mass., and married Nov. 20, 1662, James Hamlin, Jr. of Barnstable, Mass.). The connections which Andrews proposes between Mary Dunham and various English royal and noble lines should be viewed with skepticism. This is discussed further under the headings of John Dunham (1589-1669) and below under the discussion of James Hamlin (Jr.).
The Hamlin family name: The name of Hamlin or Hamblen is supposed to be of German origin, perhaps derived from the town of Hamlin in Lower Saxony, at the junction of the river Hamel with the Weiser. The name Hemelin is still common in France, whence some have come to this country and to Quebec, where they have become numerous. In England, the name was spelled Hamelyn, Hamlin, Hamelin, Hamlyn, etc., and in America is most commonly spelled Hamlin.
James Hamlin (Hamblen) founded the family in Barnstable, Massachusetts. The correct spelling of his name is a questionable matter. People in those times were not particular, and the same individual did not spell his own name uniformly, in many instances, as there was no standard of English orthography then. It is believed that James came to America without his family about 1638-9, and that they followed him later. While no record of the fact had been discovered, other circumstances render it probable that he was obliged to leave his family and flee England to escape religious persecution. This may account for the failure to discover the time and manner of his passage, which may have been intentionally concealed, for his escape and safety. It is known that he was a Puritan and a member of Rev. John Lothrop’s church in Barnstable. He was admitted a Freeman of Barnstable on 1 Mar 1641, and he was appointed constable soon after. Thereafter, the name of James Hamlin (Hamblen) appears frequently in the records of Plymouth Colony. He made his will 23 Jan 1683, Governor Thomas Hinkley and Jonathan Russell witnessing the signing and sealing of the will. In this will, he names his wife as Anna, but no other record of her name has been found. They had the following children, baptized in the church of St. Lawrence, Reading, Berkshire, England: James, born 31 Oct 1630, died before April 1636; Sarah, born 6 Sep 1632; Mary, born 27 Jul 1634; James Hamlin, born 10 Apr 1636, mentioned below. Hannah was probably born in England between 1636 and 1642, but no record of her birth appears either in England or New England. The first record of his children born in America, is Bartholomew, born in Barnstable, Plymouth colony on 11 Apr 1642. Other children of James Hamlin (Hamblen) and Anna were: John, born 26 Jun 1644; child, stillborn and buried 2 Dec 1646; Sarah born 7 Nov 1647; Eleazer, born 17 Mar 1649 and Israel, born 25 Jun 1652.
James Hamlin (Hamblen) died in 1690. His personal estate was appraised at £19.17.3. He was probably over eighty years old, and had probably distributed some of his personal estate before his death, as indicated in the will. Many of the descendants of James Hamlin (Hamblen) have intermarried with the descendants of the earliest settlers of the Plymouth colony and Cape Cod. Several generations of his descendants lived in Barnstable.
His son, James Hamlin (Jr.) came to America in 1642 with his mother and sisters, settling with his father in Barnstable. His name frequently appears in the records of Plymouth Colony. He was a farmer and resided first at his father’s Coggin’s Pond lot. In 1702 had removed to Hamblin Plains, West Barnstable, and his son Ebenezer occupied the Coggin’s Pond homestead.
James (Jr.) probably lived in Barnstable most of his life, although a writer on the Hatch family asserts that he settled in Falmouth, Massachusetts about 1660, which must be an error. He was a proprietor of that town at the time mentioned, but if he ever resided there, it was temporarily, only. The erroneous idea of his settlement in Falmouth probably arose from the following circumstances: A controversy arose in Plymouth colony over the persecution of the Quakers. Gov. Thomas Prence and his party were relentless in their opposition. Another religious faction was inclined to more tolerant measures toward these persecuted people, which brought down the vengeance of Gov. Prence upon the leaders of the opposition. In consequence, a company of the dissatisfied people left Barnstable in 1660. They contemplated settlement at Martha’s Vineyard, a favored retreat of the Quakers, and one of their number took a letter of dismissal to the church there. The names of this company were Jonathan Hatch, Isaac Robinson, John Chapman, John Jenkins, James Hamlin, Mr. Thomas, Samuel Fuller, Thomas Lothrop, Anthony Annable, Peter Blossom, William Nelson, James Cobb, Samuel Hinckley and Thomas Ewer. They coasted around Cape Cod and landed at Succonesset, now Falmouth, Massachusetts, where lands were assigned to them as proprietors. On 29 Nov 1661, Hatch and Robinson settled there, but most, if not all the others, returned to Barnstable. Late in life James (Jr.) removed to Tisbury, Massachusetts, where his will was dated 13 Sep 1717, and where he died on 3 May 1718.
James Hamlin (Jr.) married Mary Dunham on 20 Nov 1662. H. Franklin Andrews speculated in 1909 that Mary Dunham was connected to English royal and noble ancestry through a “John Dunham” who was supposed to have arrived at Plymouth with his parents on the Mayflower in 1620. This “John Dunham” is connected by Andrews through his father (also named “John Dunham” alias “John Goodman”) to a “Thomas Hamlin of Scrooby”, and back several generations to John of Gaunt, the son of King Edward III. Unfortunately, the evidence to support the legend of John Dunham of the Mayflower does not appear to be strong, and it was largely refuted in a 1998 article TAG 73:101-104, written by Paul C. Reed. The Mayflower hoax and the mysterious “John Goodman” are discussed at greater length under the heading of John Dunham (1589-1669), my 10th g-grandfather. I am, however, related to John of Gaunt and Edward III in various other ways, which are discussed under Royal Ancestors.
The son James Hamlin (Jr.) and Mary Dunham was Deacon Ebenezer Hamlin, who succeeded to his grandfather’s property and his father’s and later removed to Rochester (Wareham), Massachusetts. He and his children were among the original members of the church there (organized 25 Dec 1739), where he was appointed Deacon. According to the records of the First Congregational Church of Wareham, Ebenezer served as Deacon from 18 Feb 1739 (O.S.) to 30 May 1742. He served with Joshua Gibbs (1690-1765), my 7th g-grandfather, who was a Deacon from 18 Feb 1739 (O.S.) to 8 Oct 1765. The church records from 1739 also indicate a member Ruth Hamlin, who may be Ebenezer’s daughter-in-law Ruth Gibbs (my 6th g-grandmother). In 1742, Ebenezer became one of the early settlers of Sharon, Connecticut. In his will he left Twenty four pounds old tenor toward the worship of God, in the neighborhood where I now dwell, Viz.: in or near the new-erected meeting-house on the Oblong near Sharon (the Presbyterian church at Amenia Union, in Dutchess Conty New York, across the line from Sharon, of which Rev. Ebenezer Knibloe was the first pastor).
In 1698, Ebenezer Hamlin married Sarah Lewis. Andrews, in his genealogy of the family of James Hamlin (cited above) was not able to identify the parents of Sarah Lewis. There was a Lewis family in Barnstable, the progenitor of which is George Lewis (Lewes), born 3 Aug 1600 at Brenchley, Kent, England, the son of George Lewis and Denise Foreman. He arrived in Massachusetts (Plymouth Colony) by 1635 and perhaps as early as 1633. He was also a member of the congregation of Rev. John Lothrop, as was James Hamlin. George also had a brother, John, who arrived with his family from England in 1635 aboard the Hercules. Two of George’s sons, George (Jr.) and James had daughters named Sarah Lewis who were born in 1659 and 1664, respectively. However, the dates are problematic. Both Sarahs apparently lived past 1729, which is the year that Ebenezer married his second wife (Elizabeth, widow of Samuel Arnold), his first wife having presumably died previously, as divorce in colonial New England was exceedingly rare. The question is left unanswered and is considered as a matter for further research.
The children of Ebenezer Hamlin and Sarah Lewis are listed as follows (all born in Barnstable):
- Ebenezer, born 18 Mar 1698/9
- Mercy, born 10 Sep 1700
- Hopestill, born 23 Jul 1702
- Cornelius, born 13 Jun 1705
- Thomas Hamlin, born 6 May 1710 and died about 1765.
- Isaac, born 1 Jul 1714
- Lewis, born 31 Jan 1718
On 10 Dec 1734, Thomas Hamlin married Ruth Gibbs. Their son, Nathaniel Hamlin, born 7 Jun 1738, in Agawam, Massachusetts and died in Sharon, Connecticut on 27 Dec 1818. He was a merchant and kept a house of entertainment for travelers at Sharon Mountain. He was first lieutenant in the 3rd Company of Sharon and later was in the Colonial forces in the War of the American Revolution. He was appointed ensign of Third Company in Sharon, October 1771; lieutenant, May 1772 and first lieutenant, June 1776. Asa Cornelius and Thomas Hamlin (his brothers) were privates in the same company, which was commanded by Captain Edward Rogers and attached to Colonel Fisher Gays’ Second Battalion in General James Wadsworth’s Connecticut brigade of six battalions. This brigade was raised in 1776 to reinforce General George Washington in New Jersey. He fought at the Battle of Long Island and was at White Plains in active service until 25 Dec 1776, when their time expired. He married (1st) Lucy Foster (1740-1785), and they had several children together. In 1786, he married (2nd) Deborah St. John (1763-1817) and had several more children with her. Deborah is a distant cousin of mine, since she was a 3rd great granddaughter of my maternal 10th g-grandparents, Matthias (Matthew) St. John (1604-1669) and Mary Tinker (1606-1699).
The son of Nathaniel Hamlin and Lucy Foster is Loren Hamlin, born 1784 in Sharon, Connecticut. In 1806, he married Lydia Baker (1788-1851). Loren died in Rupert, Bennington, Vermont in 1843. In 1844, Lydia married (2nd) Titus Sheldon, and census records indicate her dwelling in Rupert, Vermont with Titus in 1850. Lydia died in Rupert, Vermont in 1851. (Dates are based on the following cemetery inscriptions in the North Rupert Cemetery, Rupert, Vermont: Loren: “Loron Hamlin,/Died/Nov. 15, 1843,/in the 57 year of/his age”; Lydia: “Lydia,/wife of/Loren Hamlin/and second wife of/Dea. Titus Sheldon/died/Sept. 3. 1851,/Æ. 63”)
[Click —> here, for more pictures of the Rupert, Vermont post office]
The son of Loren Hamlin and Lydia Baker is Fayette B Hamlin, born 1812 in Rupert, Vermont. In 1833, he married (in Rupert, Vermont) Lucretia York (1814-1887). Lucretia was born in Wyalusing, Pennsylvania. United States Census records indicate them dwelling in Belvidere, Illinois in 1850, although the exact date of their removal to Illinois is unknown. Fayette died in Belvedere, Illinois in 1866. United States Census records indicate Lucretia dwelling in Manchester, Iowa in 1880, with her sons, (H. F.) Henry Hamlin and Augusta Hamlin. It can be assumed that sometime between 1833 and 1850, Fayette and Lucretia lived in Pennsylvania, because census records indicate that both of these sons were born in that state.
Henry Fayette Hamlin was born 14 Apr 1834 in Pennsylvania. He married Harriet Allen Clarke in 1857. She was born in Sandy Creek, New York on 21 May 1839 and is the daughter of Oratio Dyer Clarke (1811-1899) and Laura Ann King (1811-1883). In the late 1850s Henry Fayette Hamlin of Pennsylvania decided to seek his fortune further west. He stopped when he reached Delaware County, Iowa and the town of Manchester. There he began business as a merchant and attained prominence. Harriet died 21 Mar 1898 at Manchester, Iowa. Henry died 29 Jul 1901, also in Manchester, Iowa, and both are buried in the Oakland Cemetery in Manchester.
The son of Harriet Allen Clarke and Henry Fayette Hamlin is Clarence Clark Hamlin, born 7 Jan 1868 in Manchester, Iowa. He was the first of my line to drop the final “e” from the Clarke surname, which he took as a middle name. He was born in 1868 in Manchester, Iowa and studied law at Iowa State University, graduating in 1890. For six years he operated a law office in Rock Springs, Wyoming, where he was twice elected to the Wyoming state senate, where he served on a committee to revise the laws of the State of Wyoming.
An account of his early accomplishments in life is contained in a source called the Portrait and Biographical Record of the State of Colorado, 1899 — > click here.
In 1896 he moved to Colorado Springs and continued his profession, as well as serving as president of the Garden City Land Company and Vice President of the Granite Gold Mining Co., “one of the larger Cripple Creek properties.” [follow the link for background information on the history of the Cripple Creek Mining District]. He served as president of the Midland Terminal Railway and was associated with the Holly Sugar Corporation. He also owned a ranch near Garden City, Kansas. During strikes by the Western Federation of Miners (WFM) at Cripple Creek at the turn of the century he represented the operators and successfully fought unionization. At this time (1903-04) there were a series of incidents that have come to be known as the “Colorado Labor Wars”, which involved a struggle between the WFM and the mine operators, particularly the Cripple Creek Mine Owners Association (CCMOA), of which Clarence Clark Hamlin was Secretary. Like so many other fights between the miners and the owners of the mines, this was a brutal and bloody period in Colorado’s history. A nearly simultaneous strike in Colorado’s northern and southern coal fields was also met with a military response by the Colorado National Guard Clarence Clark Hamlin‘s role in this episode is discussed in Marshall Sprague’s Money Mountain: The Story of Cripple Creek Gold (Boston, Massachusetts: Little, Brown and Company) 1953.
More pictures of the Gold Coin / Granite Mine in Victor, Colorado:
Follow the link to see —> an example of a Granite Gold Mining Company stock certificate from 1906. (Granite Gold Mining Company – Certificate #495, issued December 31, 1906. Signed by Charles L. Tutt as president. Mines Located in the Cripple Creek District, Colorado. This Company, owned by Charles L. Tutt, Spencer Penrose, Charles M. MacNeill, Clarence C. Hamlin, and J.H. House, had possession of the Gold Coin Mine, in the center of Victor, Colorado. The property was once owned by The Woods Investment Company, which discovered gold as the foundation of a new hotel was being excavated).
The Colorado Labor Wars:
When smelter workers went on strike in Colorado City, Colorado in 1903 it appeared that they might be able to win their demands without a serious fight, since the Cripple Creek miners were striking in sympathy with their demands. However, when one of the smelter operators refused to accept the deal brokered by the Governor of Colorado, James Hamilton Peabody, the Governor called in federal troops. Peabody was a fierce opponent of unions and of any social legislation that limited businesses’ right to run their own affairs as they saw fit. The crucial issue in Colorado was the eight-hour day. When the Legislature had enacted a statute limiting the workday in hazardous industries, such as mining and smelting, to eight hours, the Colorado Supreme Court declared it unconstitutional. The voters of Colorado then passed a referendum authorizing the eight-hour day, but the smelter owners and Republican Party fought any efforts to pass a new statute implementing the amendment, while Peabody declared that he would undo it “if it requires the entire power of the State and the Nation to do it”.
That power took the form of Colorado’s National Guard, whose salaries were paid by the business community, not the State. Their commanding officer, General Sherman Bell, began arresting union leaders, strikers, and local public officials by the hundreds. Bell prohibited local newspapers from printing any material unfavorable to the military and ordered the arrest of the entire staff of a newspaper whose editorial had offended him. In Bell’s words, “Military necessity recognizes no laws, either civil or social”. When a lawyer for the union sought to free the prisoners on a writ of habeas corpus, Bell responded, “Habeas corpus, be damned! We’ll give ’em post mortems!”
The violence on both sides only intensified. After a mine explosion on 21 Nov 1903 killed a superintendent and foreman, Bell announced a vagrancy order that required all strikers to return to work or be deported from the district. When a bomb exploded at the Independence Depot near Victor, Colorado on 6 Jun 1904, killing thirteen strikebreakers, Sheriff H.M. Robertson went to investigate. The situation became very volatile, with throngs of angry men gathered in the streets.
The Cripple Creek Mine Owners’ Association and an anti-union vigilante organization, the Cripple Creek District Citizens’ Alliance, called a meeting at the Victor Military Club to formulate a response to the violence. A short time later Sheriff Robertson, whom the Mine Owner’s Association deemed too tolerant of the union, was confronted and ordered to resign immediately or be lynched. Robertson was replaced with Edward Bell, a member of both the Mine Owner’s Association and the Citizens’ Alliance.
In a hostile environment ripe for provocation, the Mine Owner’s Association and the Citizens’ Alliance called a public meeting in a vacant lot across from the Western Federation of Miners union hall in Victor. Speeches (including by Clarence Clark Hamlin) against the union gave way to arguments, followed by fist fights and shooting. Two were killed and five others were wounded in the melee. WFM members took refuge in their hall, but Company L of the National Guard surrounded the hall and laid siege, firing into the building from nearby rooftops. Forty union members eventually surrendered, with four of them sporting fresh wounds. The Citizen’s Alliance entered the building and trashed it. Vigilantes subsequently destroyed every union hall in the area, while General Bell used the National Guard to deport hundreds of strikers. General Bell closed the Portland Mine, owned by James Burns, because it had come to an agreement with the WFM.
In 1903, Clarence Clark Hamlin purchased the Colorado Springs Evening Telegraph from Clarence P. Dodge. Using this property as a springboard, he became the publisher of what later was the Colorado Springs Gazette (later the Colorado Springs Gazette & Telegraph). After selling the Telegraph, to Hamlin, Dodge subsequently started a competing newspaper, the Herald, which he later sold to to Hamlin, who combined it with the earlier newspaper in 1909. Dodge also owned another publication, the Gazette, which he sold to Hamlin in 1923. Clarence Clark Hamlin ran the newspaper until his death in 1940. The newspaper changed its name was changed to The Gazette in 1997, and it is the second largest circulation in Colorado, behind the Denver Post. The sale of The Gazette by Irvine, California-based Freedom Communications to Clarity Media, a subsidiary of The Anschutz Corporation, closed in late 2012.
Follow —> this link to read about how my g-grandfather and grandmother successfully fought the KKK in Colorado. Clarence Clark Hamlin, publisher of the city’s two leading newspapers, The Gazette and the Evening Telegraph, became a leader of Klan opposition. He flayed the Klan on the front pages and the editorial pages, stating “Its code is such that few save the most viciously biased would openly subscribe to it. The protection of anonymity, the refuge of moral cowardice, alone brings members to it.” To remove that protection, Hamlin had reporters infiltrate the local klavern; he published a list of leaders, and threatened to print the name of every member. The reporter he sent may even have been my grandmother (Elizabeth Gunnell Hamlin).
Clarence Clark Hamlin was described as a “political leader in Colorado for nearly 40 years, Cripple Creek mining pioneer, one of the west’s best known attorneys and a man of wide acquaintance with the nation’s leaders.” He was associated with such Colorado Springs businessmen as Spencer Penrose, C. M. MacNeill, Eugene P. Shove, Charles L. Tutt, and A.E. Carlton in several ventures, and was a business associate and close personal friend of Verner Z. Reed. Reed left Hamlin the largest bequest in his will after those to his family. Clarence Clark Hamlin represented many of these men in legal affairs and provided advice to their businesses.
Clarence Clark Hamlin married Seddie Gunnell, daughter of his early legal partner, Judge Allen Thomas Gunnell, in Colorado Springs in 1898, and they had a daughter, Elizabeth Gunnell Hamlin, who became a music teacher in Colorado Springs. From 1905-09 he was District Attorney of the fourth judicial district of Colorado. He was active in the Republican Party in Colorado Springs, as a delegate to the Republican National Convention of 1896 in St. Louis, Missouri (which nominated William McKinley), a candidate for the Senate in 1908, a delegate to the Republican National Convention in 1920 and the state’s national committeeman during the 1920s. He was described as a close friend of Warren Harding, Calvin Coolidge and Herbert Hoover, dining with them in Washington many times. In addition, Clarence Clark Hamlin was active throughout hislife in fraternal and social organizations, including the Elks Club, Denver Club, Cheyenne Mountain Country Club, Cooking Club and the Congressional Country Club in Washington, D.C. Upon his death in 1940, the Gazette judged him “almost the last of that great coterie of Colorado Springs’ great men who worked shoulder to shoulder in business and politics,” comparing him to Spencer Penrose, C.M. MacNeill, Eugene P. Shove, and A.E. Carlton.
Maps of various Hamlin parcels in the State of Kansas:
Clarence Clark Hamlin died 30 Oct 1940 in Colorado Springs, Colorado (Find A Grave Memorial# 34857562). Clarence Clark Hamlin Papers, 1916-1940 are kept in the Special Collections Manuscripts with call number Ms 0052 at the Tutt Library of Colorado College, Colorado Springs, Colorado. The house at 1148 N. Cascade Avenue (formerly 1122 Wood Avenue) in Colorado Springs, where Clarence Clark Hamlin resided from 1923-1940 is described in an “Architectural Inventory Form” prepared by Colorado College in July 2009. After C. C. Hamlin‘s death in 1940, the house remained in the Hamlin family until it was acquired by the College in 1943. It is currently being used as a College residence facility (Hamlin House).
Clarence married Seddie Gunnell (1875-1946), and their daughter, Elizabeth Gunnell Hamlin, my paternal grandmother (1901-1982), married Tor Emil Hylbom (1900-1966), an immigrant from Sweden who is discussed under his own heading. The engagement announcement for Elizabeth and Tor from the Vassar Miscellany News (15 Apr 1933, page 4) can be viewed by following the link. Elizabeth was born 16 Dec 1901 in Colorado Springs, Colorado and died 17 Jul 1982, also in Colorado Springs.
 From: Genealogical and Personal History of the Allegheny Valley, Pennsylvania by John Woolf Jordan. Lewis Historical Pub. Co., 1913 (1162 pages).
 John Lothrop (1584–1653) was an English Anglican clergyman, who became a Congregationalist minister and emigrant to New England. He was the founder of Barnstable, Massachusetts. Formerly, he was pastor of an Independent or congregationalist Society at Southwalk, London. In April of 1632, forty-five members of this church were apprehended for unlawful meeting, eighteen of whom escaped. Some were confined in the Clink, New Prison and the Gate House, for about two years, and then released on bail; except Mr. Lothrop, for whom no favor could at first be obtained. There is some question as to the terms of his release, but the fact remains that these people caused the English government no little trouble; religion was regulated by the law at that period; and this society were non-conformists. The exact date of their release is not given, but on 18 Sep 1634, the Griffin (the same ship that carried William Hutchinson and Anne Marbury, discussed under their own heading) and another ship arrived in Boston with passengers, among whom were Mr. Lothrop and thirty of his followers. It is not supposed Hamlin was with them. Soon after Mr. Lothrop and most, if not all those who came with him, went to Scituate, Massachusetts, where there was a small settlement of his old friends, whom he had known in England, and who invited him to become their pastor. There were nine of these families then at Scituate who had previously come from England, settling first at Plymouth; and Mr. Lothrop gives a list of The Houses in ye plantation of Scituate att my Comeing hither, onely wch was aboute the end of Sept. 1634, — all wch small plaine pallizadoe Houses. The name of James Hamlin is not in that list, however.
 Thomas Hinckley (1618–1706) was the governor of the Plymouth Colony and held several other governmental positions during his lifetime, including that of a representative, a deputy, magistrate, and assistant, among others. A monument, created in 1829 at the Lothrop Hill cemetery in Barnstable, Massachusetts, attests to his piety, usefulness and agency in the public transactions of his time. Hinckley was born in England and migrated to NewEngland with his parents, Samuel and Sarah Hinckley, in 1635, settling in Barnstable, Massachusetts in 1639, where he assumed multiple positions in the government of Plymouth colony.
 The Battle of Long Island, also known as the Battle of Brooklyn or the Battle of Brooklyn Heights, fought on 27 Aug 1776, was the first major battle in the American Revolutionary War following the United States Declaration of Independence, the largest battle of the entire conflict, and the first battle in which an army of the United States engaged, having declared itself a nation only the month before. After defeating the British in the Siege of Boston on 17 Mar 1776, General George Washington, Commander-in-Chief, brought the Continental Army to defend New York City, then limited to the southern end of Manhattan Island. There he established defenses and waited for the British to attack. In July the British, under the command of General William Howe, landed a few miles across the harbor on Staten Island. There they were slowly reinforced by ships in Lower New York Bay over the next month and a half, bringing their total force to 32,000 men. With the British fleet in control of the entrance to New York Harbor, Washington knew the difficulty in holding the city. Believing Manhattan would be the first target, he moved the bulk of his forces there. On 22 Aug 1776, the British landed on the western end of Long Island, across The Narrows from Staten Island, more than a dozen miles south from the East River crossings to Manhattan. After five days of waiting, the British attacked American defenses on the Guana (Gowanus) Heights. Unknown to the Americans, however, Howe had brought his main army around their rear and attacked their flank soon after. The Americans panicked, although a stand by 400 Maryland troops prevented most of the army from being captured. The remainder of the army fled to the main defenses on Brooklyn Heights. The British dug in for a siege but, on the night of 29-30 Aug 1776, Washington evacuated the entire army to Manhattan without the loss of material or a single life. Washington and the Continental Army were driven out of New York entirely after several more defeats and forced to retreat through New Jersey and into Pennsylvania.
 The most notable event in the history of Rock Springs, Wyoming occurred a few years prior to C. C. Hamlin’s arrival from Iowa in 1890 (the same year Wyoming was admitted as a State). The Rock Springs massacre, also known as the Rock Springs Riot, occurred on 2 Sep 1885, in the present-day city of Rock Springs, Wyoming, in Sweetwater County. The riot, between Chinese immigrant miners and white immigrant miners, was the result of racial tensions and an ongoing labor dispute over the Union Pacific Coal Department’s policy of paying Chinese miners lower wages than white miners. This policy caused the Chinese to be hired over the white miners, which further angered the white miners and contributed to the riot. Racial tensions were an even bigger factor in the massacre. When the rioting ended, at least 28 Chinese miners were dead and 15 were injured, rioters had burned 75 Chinese homes. Tension between whites and Chinese immigrants in the late 19th century American West was particularly high, especially in the decade preceding the violence. The massacre in Rock Springs was the violent outburst of years of anti-Chinese sentiment in the United States. The 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act suspended Chinese immigration for ten years, but not before thousands of immigrants came to the American West. Most Chinese immigrants to Wyoming Territory took jobs with the railroad at first, but many ended up employed in coal mines owned by the Union Pacific Railroad. As Chinese immigration increased, so did anti-Chinese sentiment from whites. The Knights of Labor, one of the foremost voices against Chinese immigrant labor, formed a chapter in Rock Springs in 1883, and most rioters were members of that organization. However, no direct connection was ever established linking the riot to the national Knights of Labor organization. In the immediate aftermath of the riot, federal troops were deployed in Rock Springs. They escorted the surviving Chinese miners, most of whom had fled to Evanston, Wyoming, back to Rock Springs a week after the riot. Reaction came swiftly from the era’s publications. In Rock Springs, the local newspaper endorsed the outcome of the riot, while in other Wyoming newspapers, support for the riot was limited to sympathy for the causes of the white miners. The massacre in Rock Springs touched off a wave of anti-Chinese violence, especially in the Puget Sound area of Washington Territory.