Born in England. Arrived in Massachusetts in about 1638 and
Born in England. Arrived in Massachusetts in about 1638.
The following notes on the ancestry of Rev. John Mayo (1597-1676) are taken from Rev. John Mayo and his Descendants (6th ed. – PDF) by Jean (May) Mayo-Rodwick (Fruita, Colorado: Blood Ties) 2010, p. xiv:
John Mayo’s ancestry has not been completely worked out. There is small doubt that he was Mayo of Northamptonshire who matriculated in Oxford University from Magdalen Hall April 28, 1615 aged 17. The late Rev. H. Isham Longden, M.A., F.S.A., etc., the authority on Northamptonshire families (died April 28, 1942), when asked for help in his identification readily responded by enclosing three extracts of wills and suggesting search of the parish registers of Thorpe Mandeville, and Middleton Cheney. The will of John Mayo of Thorpe Mandeville, Co. Northampton, dated January 18, 1629/30, proved March 20, 1629/30, with a bequest To My sonne Mr. John Mayo was one. In the Thorpe-Mandeville register (which begins in 1559) the Rev. W. B. Pakenham-Walsh found: “only one Mayo entry, Joyce Mayoe daughter of John Mayo was baptized the one and twentieth of August 1603, back and forward 20 years… the name does not occur again.” In Middleton Cheney, the adjoining parish, the Rev. W. B. Hick Canton found the Baptism on April 2, 1598 of a son to John Mayo [the name impossible to read]. [In 1997, the search in Middleton Cheney turned up a Crescent Mayo, son of Peter Mayo, not John Mayo, baptized on April 2, 1598.]
Persons are apt to be unfamiliar with the old writing and usually cannot read their registers, says an expert. So it seemed desirable for a regular searcher to view the record; and also determine what kinship existed between Henry Maio of Southam, Warwickshire (who came from Helmdon, North’ants) and Mr. John Mayo former inhabitant of nearby North Newington, Oxfordshire. Before that could be arranged, the war broke out, and there the matter rests. [Philip Tillinghast Nickerson of Wilmington, DE, New England Historical and Genealogical Register, “More about Rev. John Mayo of Cape Cod and Boston,” (Boston: New England Historic Genealogical Society, 1949), 103: 41]
In the Cape Cod series, Leon Clark Hills, History and Genealogy of Mayflower Planters & First Comers to Ye Old Colonie, (Washington D.C.: Hills, 1941), 2: 84 information claims that Rev. John Mayo was the son of John Mayo of Cattistock, England (Dorset). This son married Elizabeth Saunders and lived and died in Dorset, England and is definitely not Rev. John Mayo.
Charles E. Bank’s book, Topographical Descendants of 2885 English Emigrants to New England 1620-1650, (Baltimore: Southern Book Co., 1957), p. 135 lists John Mayo from Oxfordshire, Parish Newington North, to New England Town of Nauset C.C. [Nausett is the Indian name and original name of Eastham, Massachusetts].
In 1997, Jean Mayo-Lakatos of Connecticut [now Jean Mayo of New Hampshire] took up the challenge of delving into the pursuit of Rev. John Mayo’s ancestry in England. She contacted Nancy Long, the town historian of Middleton Cheney, England, who personally went over the records in Thorpe Mandeville, Farthinghoe, Middleton Cheney and surrounding towns.
Nancy Long, Shirley Richards of Australia, genealogist, and Jean Mayo-Lakatos searched the records in person, through the mail and via microfilm. They searched all the towns that they could possibly find connected to Rev. John Mayo mentioned by his friends in various pieces of literature. They searched places in England where his American friends and associates originated. They worked in concentric circles outward from these towns and researched the surrounding area’s records. They combed the records in Oxfordshire, Northamptonshire and Warwickshire. Shirley Richards made family tree charts in the various towns, linking all of the Mayo’s together and trying to find Rev. John Mayo’s connection.
Nancy Long located the records of a John and Katherine Mayo and the baptism of their five children. No marriage record for John and Katherine could be found. The second child of John and Katherine Mayo seems to be our John Mayo.
At this point, Harry L. Mayo suggested that Jean Mayo-Lakatos might want to check in Leiden, Holland as William Brewster and other of the Pilgrims had made stops from England in Amsterdam and Leiden (Leyden), Holland before coming to America. There the marriage record for a John Mayo and Tamsen Brike turned up adding one more link to the picture.
The known children of John Mayo and Katherine [family surname unknown] are listed as follows:
- Philipa, born about 1595. She was baptized in 1595 in Farthinghoe Parish, Northamptonshire, England and died on 24 Nov 1627.
- John Mayo, born 2 Apr 1597 in Farthinghoe Parish,
Northamptonshire, England. He married Tamisen Brike on 21 Mar 1618 at Leyden, Holland. He died in May 1676 at Yarmouth, Barnstable County (at the home of his daughter, Elizabeth), at age 79.
- Hannah, born about February 1599. She married Daniel Jarvis in about 1629
- Elizabeth, born about December 1600. She was baptized 1 Jan 1601 in Farthinghoe Parish, Northamptonshire, England. Elizabeth was not married at the time of her father’s will in 1630. (Northamptonshire County Council Corporate Headquarters Record Office, Rachel Watson, county archivist modernized the spellings). The will is dated 18 Jan 1629/30 and was proved 20 Mar 1629/30.
- Joyce, born about 1603. She married Thomas Gilbert on
22 Jan 1624 at Thorpe Mandeville, Northhamptonshire, England.
My Immigrant Ancestor:
John Mayo was born about 1597 and christened at St. Michael & All Angels Church, Farthinghoe Parish, Northamptonshire, England. He was the son John Mayo and Katherine [family surname unknown]. Early assumptions that he was from Cattistock, Northamptonshire, England have been shown to be incorrect. His first known appearance in public records, besides his baptism, is his registration at Oxford University. The registration, dated 28 Apr 1615, states that he was of a plebian father from Northamptonshire, that he was 17 years of age and of Magdalen Hall a college near the Oxford campus. There is no evidence that John ever received a degree. This was not uncommon for scholars who disagreed with the established church, since with the degree came an obligation to take an oath of allegiance to the Church of England.
We next find John Mayo at Leyden (Leiden) in the Netherlands in 1618. This town is notable because this is the city from whence English separatist exiles (afterwards known as the “Pilgrims”) eventually migrated to the New World on the Mayflower in 1620 and on other ships in later years. We do not know if John Mayo was then associated with the Pilgrim movement, as there were other English residents in Holland at the time for various reasons. The Pilgrims were residents of Leyden as early as 1609. By 1618 when John was certainly there, the Pilgrims were making preparations for a voyage to America. John Mayo did not join the Mayflower or any of the later ships that carried the Pilgrims from Leyden to Plymouth and apparently returned to England. Since the timing of these events is unclear, and no birth or baptismal record of the Mayo children has been found in Leyden or in England, we cannot be certain of where any of his children were born.
John Mayo married Thomasine Brike (many variations in Thomasine’s given name have been noted) on 21 Mar 1618 at the Dutch Reformed Church, Leyden, South Holland, Netherlands. Thomasine was born about 1605 and died 26 Feb 1682. After John and Thomasine returned to England, they lived in North Newington, Oxfordshire, which is fairly close to Thorpe Mandeville, where he was raised.
We have no way of knowing how much or whether John was involved in the Puritan movement during his time at North Newington, but it is a possibility, especially given his possible associations with the Seperatists at Leyden. The town is not far from the town of Banbury in Oxfordshire, which was considered one of the centers of the Puritan movement. At Banbury is located Broughton Castle, where secret Puritan meetings were held in the 1630s between William Fiennes Lord Saye and Sele and supporters from Oxfordshire and Warwickshire. William Fiennes, 1st Viscount Saye and Sele was one of the leading activists against Charles I, and as a result, the castle was used by Parliamentarian sympathizers, such as John Pym and John Hampden, as a meeting place in the decade leading up to the English Civil War. The 1st Viscount raised troops to fight against the king at the inconclusive Battle of Edgehill in 1642. In the following days, Royalist troops besieged the castle, quickly overcoming the defenders and occupying the castle for a time. Following the end of hostilities, reconstruction work needed to be undertaken to repair damage inflicted by Royalist cannon.
We do not know exactly when or how long John Mayo and his family resided at North Newington. In his father’s will of 1630, no place of residence is mentioned for him. He does mention that his son-in-law was living in Slapton, implying that perhaps John was in Thorpe Mandeville at that time. In the will of his father, he is called Mr. John Mayo. That title, not often given to those without some prominence, has suggested to some that he had taken “Orders” and had been preaching for some Separatist congregation in the area.
John Mayo and his family arrived in Cape Cod, Plymouth Colony, New England about 1638 or 1639. There is no surviving passenger list that would provide an exact date of arrival or the name of the ship. Family tradition indicates they came over in 1635 aboard the True Love, but this account is not supported by any available evidence and could be mistaken. Some have speculated that he may have come with his father’s old friend, Rev. Charles Chauncy, who arrived at Plymouth around the same time as John Mayo. (Rev. Chauncy was a vicar in nearby Marston St. Lawrence and a friend of John Mayo’s parents, John Mayo and Katherine. Later he moved to the Plymouth Colony in America and was in touch with Rev. John Mayo).
The estimated birth dates of John’s children indicate that his family was complete before he left England. They settled first in the town of Barnstable, Massachusetts, where John Mayo was made a freeman by the Plymouth General Court on 3 Mar 1640. This is the first official notice of John in the New World, meaning that he was most likely at Barnstable at least a year earlier, since time must have elapsed between the time of arrival and his admittance as “freeman” of the colony. At about this same time, Rev. John Lathrop (who arrived in Massachusetts in the Griffin voyage of 1634) moved his ministry from Scituate to Barnstable, and in April of the same year, he ordained John as a religious teacher or a teaching elder so that John could become his assistant, although he must have primarily engaged in farming to maintain his family. Researchers have found further record of John Mayo at Barnstable in 1643 on a list of inhabitants of the town.
John Mayo occupied house lot No. 5 at Barnstable, which included 12 acres of upland and adjoining meadows. This was located between Coggin’s Pond and the site of the present courthouse. Rev. Joseph Hull was the minister there around this time, and John Mayo, Hull and others built themselves substantial frame houses in the area.
In 1643, Gov. Wyllys ( Willis ) of Connecticut, a friend of Rev. John Mayo, invited him to move to Connecticut and be a minister there. John consulted with his wife, Rev. John Lothrop and his church elders and decided to stay at Barnstable. The following is a copy of the letter that John Mayo wrote to Gov. Wyllys, declining his offer:
New England Historical and Genealogical Register, 103 (Jan 1949) p. 32-42, Letter from John Mayo to Gov. George Wyllys of Connecticut
Grace, Mercy, and peace from God the father
and or Lord Jesus Christ be Multiplied
to you and yors:
Much honoured Sr
Whom I heartily Love and kindly salute in or Lord wth my earnest desire see you if the Lord would be pleased in his wise providence to afford me thar mercy; yor Letir of the 2nd of the 3m came to my hands upon the first of the 7m, so that I could not returne an answer of it any sooner. Soe that these few Lines are in remembrance of my respective Service to you, and unfained thankes for all yor many and great favours to me and mine, and yor prsent remembrance of me. I should account no smale mercy nor little portion of my happyness to have been (if god had so dispossed me) settled in yor pts, that I may have enjoyed good by yor Communion, wth others of my deare friends wth you, but my unworthyness did justly debarre me that benefit, the Lord in mercy humble me by itt, and sacrifice all his dispensations to me and dealings with me, concering yor Lettr if I were free I should (if I might see the Lord going before thee) not only manifest my willingnesse but readynesse to Live soe neare you, not Looking after any call for publicke service for I find the calling of ministry soe great the charge so weightie that were I out of office, I should not easily imbrase a call, but as yet I am in office though unworthy and unable being privie to the deceit of my owne heart and my great weaknesses. Whereupon I have desired or Church that I may Lay downe my office, but I cannot privayle wth them, they are through god’s mercy and goodnesse a good and so godly and playne hearted people, for the most prt, wth whom (as yet I see it is the mind of God I should stay) the Lord of his grace makes me serviceable to him and to them. I am greatly ing[ag]ed to yo. As for the forme soe for this prsent fruit of yor Love to me in desiring me in yor pts. But to goe to a new plantation I am allmost discouraged in casse I were at Libertie, for I have wrestled through many difficutlties by going to a new on at the first, and have not yet recovered breath, and if I should goe to a new on now it might breake my wind, though I hope it would not impaire my inward man if the Lord of his grace will be pleased to strengthen me. I beseech to you to help me by yor prayers in yor neerer approaches to the throne of grace. I [shd] have come down into the Bay at the beggininge of the Synod had not the Lord dispossed otherwayes by wch I did see it was not his mind to Let me be there. I heartedly [ ] to see you and yors. I hope the next Spring [ ]rd will me an opprtunitie in the Int [ ] and my wife do earnestly desire yor prayers and remembr or respective Service to yorself and Mrs. Willis and or kind respects to yor daughters Mr. Whiting mr Welles and to their wives, and to Goodman Westly William Gibbons and their wives, with my best respects to Mr. Hooker mr Stone and mr Huit and their wives thus commending to their faithful keeper of Isreal In whom
Yours to be Commanded in
and for the Lord Jesus
John Mayo Barnstable the 2d of the 7m 1643.
In 1646 John Mayo moved to the newly incorporated town of Eastham and became the pastor of the church there. He had gone there with Mr. Thomas Prence and others from Barnstable and they thus obtained Mr. John Mayo the Reverend teacher of that Church to Go over to them, and he became their Teacher. John Mayo’s son Samuel remained in Barnstable and became a noted mariner, Master of the bark Desire, the first important ship to hail from Barnstable. Rev. Mayo retained connections with Barnstable while in Eastham. In 1648 he still owned seven acres there, and he returned in 1649 to conduct the marriage ceremony of Elizabeth, the daughter of Mr. Bearse. It is also likely that both John and Thomasine attended the wedding at Barnstable of their son Nathaniel Mayo to Hannah Prence, the daughter of the Governor of Plymouth Colony, on 14 Feb 1648/49.
About 1655 Rev. John Mayo decided to leave Eastham because of some difficulties and discouragements and become the first pastor of the Second Church of Boston. This church is also known today as Old North Church (the current building dates to 1723) or “Paul Revere’s Church”. It had been built to service the expanding population of Boston. It was a three-storied structure in North Square, large for that era. He sold 3 acres of property in Eastham to John Morton of Plymouth. He was ordained at Boston 9 Nov 1655, the congregation finding that he was both available and suitable. They had been sent an able gospel minister. The ceremony took place in the presence of neighboring ministers. It was a considerable move for Rev. Mayo to come from the smallest town on Cape Cod to the largest city in Massachusetts Bay.
In spite of the prominence of his new position, we know little about the ideas of this pastor. He wrote very little and little was written about him during his term. He seems to have been a quiet man, but necessarily competent and intellectual because of the important role the clergy played in all aspects of life. Thus his term there was described as dignified but unspectacular.
Initially he lived in a house belonging to Bart. Bernard on the south side of Fleet Street, and then bought a house on the westside of Hanover (Middle) Street, between Parmenter and Prince Streets. During this time, he was also an overseer of Harvard College. As such he signed a petition to be sent to Oliver Cromwell, the new ruler of England, asking him to afford maintenance to our English College at Cambridge and to the Indian College for the education of the Indian youth in piety and learning. Rev. John Mayo attended Harvard Commencement in June 1656. The new Town House, began in 1657 was under construction and would contain a room for a library—something that was exciting for the town clergy. John’s son Samuel joined his father in Boston in that year. In June he gave the election sermon for the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company of Boston.
That winter, John Mayo’s son Nathaniel died at Eastham, and in 1664 his son Captain Samuel Mayo also died in Boston. In the same year Increase Mather enrolled as a member of the church and was installed as Teacher of the North Church. He wrote in his diary: This day my ordination. My father & Mr. Mayo imposed hands. Rev. Mayo had been his mentor and now found that his patience and persuasiveness had been rewarded. In the custom of the time the pastor was expected to spend his strength mostly in exhortation, while the teacher was to indoctrinate the church. The teacher worked in the study, while the pastor “toiled in the open field.” The result was that Rev. Mayo remained in charge of all but the pulpit duties.
The Mayo family must have been very hospitable because there are many references in the writings of contemporary leaders of Boston about dining at the Mayo’s. It is likely that Mrs. Mayo was the principal cook for these dinners. Rev. John Mayo’s salary, at that time, was £65 per year.
In 1662 Rev. John Mayo participated in a Synod of all the ministers in Massachusetts. This group adopted the “Half-way Covenant”, which allowed children of non-conformists to be baptized. This was done because good standing in the church was necessary for full political rights in the colony, and many of the second generation were not being baptized because of the earlier beliefs or actions of their parents. Though the change was progressive, it seems that Rev. Mayo was one of the dissenting minority.
In 1666 it was necessary for the North Church to excommunicate a vocal and impenitent member of the congregation. There was a confrontation between Rev. John Mayo and this man during a service, resulting in the man walking out of the church complaining that the only reason of his expulsion was a difference of opinion on infant baptism. This member, though, seems to have been particularly belligerent and profane in his opinions. By 1669 Rev. Mayo had moderated his opinion on the form of baptism. In this year Increase Mather’s father died and he also had to go back to Northampton because of the terminal illness of his brother. For some time, therefore, Rev. Mayo assumed the full duties of North Church.
By 1672 Rev. John Mayo had become elderly and had reached the point where his voice softened so that he could not make his flock hear and be edified, and he relinquish his position at North Church. With his consent the Church dismissed him on 15 Apr 1672, thirty-three years after his installation at Barnstable. He sold his house on Middle Street and received a pension from North Church for all of the good that he had done. Rev. Mayo then returned to Barnstable on Cape Cod to live near his remaining children and grandchildren at Yarmouth, Barnstable and Eastham.
In 1675 King Phillip’s War began. Rev. John Mayo contributed a horse to the army and that horse was killed. This loss was used to offset his war tax.
In late May 1676, John Mayo died in Yarmouth without making a will. His estate was settled in June 1676. His inventory was presented by his widow Thomasine, not including goods she brought at marriage, and a division was agreed upon among his widow, his three living children (John, Elizabeth and Hannah) and Nathaniel’s children (Samuel, Hannah and Bathsheba). The value of his estate was small but average for that Colonial period. The total inventory of the estate was £111 pounds, 4 shillings. The inventory shows relatively normal furniture, clothing and household items in addition to silver valued at £30 pounds. The church in Boston paid for his funeral expenses. The grave cost 6 shillings, and the coffin an equal amount.
Though uncontroversial and humble, he had been a resourceful man, above average in intelligence and well educated. He helped found two towns in Plymouth Colony and established three churches. It is said that he never lost a friend except by death. His associate, Mr. Increase Mather said of him: He was blessing to his people and they lived together in love and peace.
The children of John Mayo and Thomasine Brike are listed as follows:
- Hannah, born about 1620. She married Nathaniel Baconon 4 Dec 1642 in Barnstable County, Plymouth Colony and died after August 1691.
- Samuel, born about 1625. He married Tamsen Lumpkinabout 1644 and died by April 1664.
- Nathaniel, born about 1627. On 14 Feb 1648/49, he married Hannah Prence, daughter of Thomas Prence and Patience Brewster and granddaughter of Mayflower passenger William Brewster. He died after 19 Dec 1661.
- John, born about 1630. He married Hannah Lecraft on 1 Jan 1650/51 in Eastham, Barnstable County, Massachusetts. He died in 1706.
- Elizabeth Mayo, see below
The daughter of John Mayo and Thomasine Brike, Elizabeth Mayo, was born about 1632. In about 1653, she married Joseph Howes, son of Thomas Howes (1601-1665) and Mary Burr (1605-1695). Joseph was born in England in about 1630 and migrated as a youngster to Massachusetts with his family. Elizabeth died on 16 Mar 1700/1.
The children of Elizabeth Mayo and Joseph Howes are listed as follows (all born at Yarmouth, Massachusetts):
- Samuel, born about 1655
- Mary (or Mercy) Howes, born 1657 and died 17 Jan 1695 at Yarmouth. On 16 Feb 1681 at Yarmouth, she married John Hallett. John was born 11 Dec 1650 and died 10 Jun 1726, both at Yarmouth. John’s parents were Andrew Hallet (1607-1683) and his unknown first wife.
- Joseph, born 1659
- John, born about 1664
- Elizabeth, born about 1666
- Nathaniel, born about 1670
- Hannah, born about 1676
- Amos, born about 1679
- (Capt.) Thomas, born about 1680 and died about 1738
The children of John Hallett and Mary (or Mercy) Howes are listed as follows (all born at Yarmouth): (1) Thankful, married Joseph Bassett 3 Dec 1719 (his 2nd wife) and died 12 Aug 1736; (2) Andrew, born 1684; (3) John Hallet, born 1688; (4) Joseph; (5) Samuel; (6) Seth; (7) Hannah, married her 2nd cousin Ebenezer Hallett (son of Jonathan) on 27 June 1728 and died 20 Apr 1729 at the birth of her first child; (8) Mary, died unmarried on 22 Apr 1751; (9) Mercy Hallett (10) Hope, born 1705, married Joseph Griffith of Harwich on 24 Jul 1729 and died 5 Jul 1784.
The lineage of John Hallet and Mary (or Mercy) Howes is continued under the heading of Andrew Hallet (1607-1683).
 Magdalen Hall was founded in 1448 by William Waynflete, Bishop of Winchester and Lord Chancellor, who later also founded Magdalen College. Its site, to the west of the College – on what is now the College’s St Swithun’s Buildings – was originally a grammar school with some associated tenements providing residence for students. The first master of the grammar school was appointed in 1480, and its original school building was erected in 1486. However, as the school took independent students as well as those belonging to the College, it quickly became an independent institution under its own Principal. Magdalen Hall was known for its adherence to the teachings of John Wycliffe, and it was here that William Tyndale, translator of the English Bible and martyr, studied. Another famous student of the Hall was the political philosopher Thomas Hobbes, who came up in either 1601 or 1602. At the time of the English Civil War, Magdalen Hall was known as a Puritan Hall under the principalship of Henry Wilkinson.
 Jean [May] Mayo-Rodwick, Rev. John Mayo & His Descendants, page 9 – On March 21, 1618 in Leiden, Holland; Marriage of Jan Meyer, abaize worker [works with coarse woolen used to make curtians, tablecloths, linings, etc.] from England, and Timmosijan Breyck, also from England, in the Reformed Church. The witnesses were Timmosijn’s mother, Susanna Breyck, and her sister, Marytgen Duoick. Jan was accompanied by Thomas Smith [Jan Meyer in Dutch is John Mayo in English; Timmosijn Breyck is Tamisen Brike. [Note: in Register of Marriage of the Reformed Church in Leiden, Holland, N.H. vol. H. fo.216, Leiden Holland. Found at Leyden City Clerks Office & University of Leiden].
 John Pym (1584-1643) was an English parliamentarian, leader of the Long Parliament and a prominent critic of Kings James I and then Charles I. He was one of the Five Members whose attempted arrest by King Charles I in the House of Commons of England in 1642 sparked the Civil War. When the English Civil War began in 1642, Pym became involved in solving the financial problems of the Parliamentary side, heading the Committee of Safety from 4 July 1642. He was a key organizer of the loans and taxes that Parliament needed to fund its army and fight the King,and he negotiated the Solemn League and Covenant that gained the support of Scottish Presbyterians. These two things laid firm foundations for Parliament’s success in 1645-6 because it now had financial and military resources far beyond those of the Royalists. Pym died, probably of cancer, at Derby House on 8 Dec 1643 and was buried in Westminster Abbey. Following the Restoration of 1660 his remains were exhumed, despoiled and finally re-buried in a common pit.
 John Hampden (about 1595-1643) was an English politician, stood trial in 1637 for his refusal to be taxed for ship money and one of the Five Members whose attempted unconstitutional arrest by King Charles I in the House of Commons of England in 1642 sparked the Civil War. The towns of Hampden, Maryland; Hamden, Connecticut; and Hampden, Maine, as well as the county of Hampden, Massachusetts, are named in his honor. Hampden-Sydney College in Virginia is also named in honor of John Hampden and of Algernon Sydney, another English patriot.
 Rev. Charles Chauncey was born at Yardleybury (Ardeley), Hertfordshire, England and educated at Westminster School, then at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he later was a lecturer in Greek. After serving as a pastor in England at Marston St. Lawrence, Northamptonshire (1633–37), he emigrated to America in 1638. He preached at Plymouth until 1641, then at Scituate where, says Mather, “he remained for three years and three times three years, cultivating the vineyard of the Lord.” He was appointed president of Harvard College in 1654. He held that office until his death in 1671. Besides a number of sermons, Chauncy published The Doctrine of the Sacrament, with the Right Use Thereof (1642); The Plain Doctrine of the Justification of a Sinner in the Sight of God (1659), a collection of 26 sermons; and Antisynodalia Scripta Americana (1662). During his time at Plymouth and Scituate, Chauncy got into a heated debate with the religious and secular leaders of the Plymouth Colony over the issue of baptism. Chauncy taught that only baptism by full immersion was valid, while the Separatist Elders taught that sprinkling water over the body was just as valid. The sprinkling method of baptism was much preferred in New England due to its cooler and harsher climate. The religious leaders of the Plymouth Colony held public debates, trying to convince Chauncy to change his views. When Chauncy still did not change his views, the Pilgrim leaders wrote to congregations in Boston and New Haven soliciting their views, and all the congregations wrote back that both forms of baptism were valid. Still, Chauncy did not change his teachings. It was because of this issue that Chauncy left Plymouth for Scituate in 1641. A year after arriving in Scituate, Chauncy had a chance to practice what he preached, when he publicly baptized his twin sons by full immersion. The plan backfired when one of his sons passed out due to being dunked in the water. The mother of the child who was supposed be baptized at the same event refused to let it happen, and according to John Winthrop, got a hold of Chauncy and “near pulled him into the water”. When Chauncy was hired to be President of Harvard, he had to promise the leaders in Boston that he would keep his views on baptism quiet. He died on 19 Feb 1672 and was buried at New Cambridge.
 John Lothrop was ordained in the Church of England and appointed curate of a local parish in Egerton, Kent. In 1623 he renounced his orders and joined the cause of the Independents. Lothrop gained prominence in 1624, when he was called to replace Reverend Henry Jacob as the pastor of the First Independent Church in London, a congregation of sixty members which met at Southwark. They were forced to meet in private to avoid the scrutiny of Bishop of London William Laud. Following the group’s discovery on 22 Apr 1632 by officers of the king, forty-two of Lothrop’s Independents were arrested. Only eighteen escaped capture. A plaque in the Lothrop Hill Cemetery in Barnstable, Massachusetts, the town which John Lothrop settled and where he died, states he was incarcerated in Newgate Prison during the years 1632-1634, although the precise location of Lothrop’s imprisonment is not confirmable from primary documentation. The Bishop ultimately released him on bond in May 1634 with the understanding that he would immediately remove to the New World. Since he did not immediately leave for the New World, a court order was subsequently put out for him. Family tradition and other historical reflections indicate he then “escaped.” With his group, he sailed on the Griffin and arrived in Boston on 18 September 1634. Lothrop did not stay in Boston long. Within days, he and his group relocated to Scituate. Dissent on the issue of baptism as well as other unspecified grievances and the lack of good grazing land and fodder for their cattle caused the church in Scituate to split in 1638. Subsequently. Lothrop petitioned Governor Thomas Prence in Plymouth for a place for the transplanting of us, to the end that God might have more glory and wee more comfort. Lothrop and a large company arrived in Barnstable on 11 Oct 1639, bringing with them the crops which they had raised in Scituate.” (Otis, 1888, p. 198). There, within three years they had built homes for all the families and then Lothrop began construction on a larger sturdier meeting house by Coggin’s (or Cooper’s) Pond, which was completed in 1644. This building, now part of the Sturgis Library in Barnstable, Massachusetts is one of John Lothrop’s original homes and meeting houses, and is now also the oldest building housing a public library in the United States.
 Some of my ancestors are known to have arrived on this same ship: My 10th g-grandparents, William and Anne Hutchinson, along with William’s mother, Susanna Wheelwright (1564-1645) and my 10th g-grandparents, Ralph Earle (1606-1678) and Joan Savage (1609-1679). Also on board was John Cotton (Anne Hutchinson’s early mentor and father-in-law of Increase Mather and grandfather of Cotton Mather, who are two prominent clerics with whom Rev. John Mayo was later associated in Boston.
 Rev. Joseph Hull (1595–1665) led a company of 106 which sailed from England to Massachusetts in 1635 and was known as the Hull Colony. Hull was born in Crewkerne, Somerset, England and graduated from Oxford in 1614. He was ordained in 1619 and served as teacher, curate and minister of Colyton, Devonshire. He became disaffected from the Church of England, and was expelled from the church in 1635. He led his congregation to what is now Weymouth, Massachusetts. Apparently his “liberal views” led to his dismissal from his parish, and he moved to Hingham, where he served as its representative in the General Court (Massachusetts legislature). He was the political and religious opponent of Gov. John Winthrop, with the “very contentious” Hull apparently siding more with the Anglicans than the Puritan governor. Winthrop eventually expelled Hull from the colony. Hull moved to Plymouth Colony, and then to Barnstable. A memorial tablet was dedicated there in 1939 (the 300th anniversary of the town’s founding) marking the site of his home there, and the rock from which he preached still stands in the middle of the highway there. Subsequently, Hull came into disfavor in Plymouth Colony. He moved to Yarmouth, Massachusetts and later to Accominticus (present-day York), Maine, becoming minister there. However, a Puritan minister was sent there to replace him, and he returned to England. He remained there for a decade. After he was ejected from the parish there, he returned to America, settling at the Isle of Shoals in New Hampshire, where he preached until his death in 1665.
 Thomas Prence (about 1601-1673) was an England-born colonist who arrived in Plymouth in November 1621 on the ship Fortune. In 1644 he moved to Eastham, which he helped found, returning later to Plymouth. For many years he was prominent in Plymouth colony affairs and was colony governor for about twenty years covering three terms.
 Old North Church (officially, Christ Church in the City of Boston), at 193 Salem Street, in the North End of Boston, is the location from which the famous “One if by land, and two if by sea” signal is said to have been sent. This phrase is related to Paul Revere’s midnight ride, of 18 April 1775, which preceded the Battles of Lexington and Concord during the American Revolution. The church is a parish of the Episcopal Diocese of Massachusetts. It is the oldest standing church building in Boston and is a National Historic Landmark.
 The accompanying picture is from A Historical Sketch of Rev. John Mayo by Anna Kingsbury (W. E. Nickerson) 1923, p. 8a.